Susan Feagin, "Reading with Feeling"
Ways to fail: fail to conjure the relevant or sufficient numbers of relevant ideas or thoughts corresponding to the "input" an individual would receive, and that would be salient in that person's (person simulated) attention and experience. Fail to get the ideas and thoughts to play the sorts of roles that would be played by the actual sensations and beliefs. Remedy: experimentation and practice.
Another way to fail: be mistaken about which beliefs or desires of mine would be psychologically most effective. Be mistaken about how what someone else sees and hears would be processed psychologically.
(This is not to say that beliefs always are always explicitly formed or employed.)
Appreciation: two components, experiental and reflective. Former includes affects, experiences, various activities engaged in during the process of reading. Latter is necessary to identify and explain the relevance or irrelevance, appropriateness or inappropriateness, of any given affect or activity. A lack of reflection doesn't keep the experience from being relevant or appropriate; just keeps one from knowing it.
Objection: inputs (to characters, to reader) are different, so responses must be qualitatively different. Response: psychological activity or processing of inputs may still be structurally analogous (cf. computer simulations of human mental activities, keyboard, sense organs). Argument to follow about why.
Hypothesis: qualitative character of affective or emotional experience is at least partly a function of the structure of the process out of which it arises.
Two ways of thinking about emotions, moods, feelings which accomodate hypothesis: emotions defined as states identified in part by their phenomenology (emotions have the phenomenology they do because the states are the effects of certain sorts of processes); emotions defined as processes of such a nature or structure that they (characteristically) give rise to experiences of a given character. Either way, nature and structure of the processes, not merely mental contents, is what's important.