# Name Precedents of the SCA College of Arms

## The Second Tenure of Master François la Flamme

Last Revised: 02 February 2009

This is a draft of name precedents from the tenure of François la Flamme as Laurel Principal King of Arms (June 2004 LoAR to January 2005 LoAR). During this period name rulings were made primarily by Margaret MacDubhshhithe, Pelican Queen of Arms. Please verify all precedents you wish to use with the cited LoAR. Direct all comments to Aryanhwy merch Catmael.

The following heralds are refered to by title in the precedents: Mari neyn Brian (Rowel), Walraven van Nijmegen (Nebuly), Da'ud ibn Auda (al-Jamal), Alisoun MacCoul of Elphane (Metron Ariston), Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Boke), Jaelle of Armida (Argent Snail), Yin Mei Li (Golden Pillar), Juliana de Luna (Siren), and Magnus von Lübeck (Orle).

The documentation of the name was all in French; no translation was provided in the summarization. Translation of at least the summary of foreign language documentation is required on Letters of Intent. Had the College not provided such translations, we would have been forced to return this name for lack of adequate summarization of the documentation. [Sabine Lefevre d'Armagnac, LoAR 01/2005, Ansteorra-A]

[Zunft der Schildermaler vom Weißen Thurm.] Listed on the Letter of Intent as Zunft dër Schildermaler vom Weißen Thurm, the forms showed Zunft der Schildermaler vom Weißen Thurm. No reason for the change was given on the Letter of Intent, nor was this change made on the forms, so we must assume that this is a typo. We have changed the name back to the spelling on the forms. [Falko von der Weser, LoAR 01/2005, Meridies-A]

Although the form said that the submitter would not accept changes, we received a letter, via Gold Falcon, signed by the branch senechal and herald allowing changes and stating a preference for the name Amlesmore. We have made this change in order to register the name. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Other questions were raised about the gender of the name. Yes, the submitter is female. However, the forms indicate that she does not have a preference for the gender of the registered name. Since the submitted name is a masculine name, we are registering it as a masculine name. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This group is located in the county of Wyndham, VT. For purpose of registration, this is identical to the name being transfered here Wyndhame, Canton of. According to precedent:

the name may run afoul of section III.A.9 of the Administrative Handbook: No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context. Thus, in the present case, we would not have registered Tornio or Torneå, those being the currently used names for the town. The submitted name differs from each of these by one syllable, and that is generally considered sufficient difference for personal names. Again, we see no point in treating place names differently. [Torna, Canton of, 06/01, A-Drachenwald]

There is no difference in sound and there is only a difference of a single letter here, the silent -e at the end of the county name. [Wyndhame, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

The submitter presented his SCA membership card as proof of legal name. In this case, such proof was not needed to register his name. We remind submissions heralds that an SCA membership card is not a legal document for purposes of demonstrating a legal given name. Had no documentation been found for Michael as a medieval name, a photocopy of a membership card would be insufficient to allow its registration under the legal name allowance. [Michael Magnus, LoAR 12/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted under the name Tir Righ, Principality of, the registered name of the principality is Tir Rígh; there is an acute accent over the 'i' in Rígh. Groups, if your registered branch name includes an accent, please be sure to include it in the branch name when you submit items for registration. While the Laurel staff is exemplery in their proofreading, even the best of staffs don't always catch every typo. A typo such as this could cause a the submitted item to be listed incorrectly in the Armorial. [Tir Rígh, Principality of, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

The Administrative Handbook section III.A.9 says "No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context."; In the case of branch names, this means a branch cannot use a name is a mundane location within its territory is known currently by that name. Unfortunately, Metron Ariston notes that Beit Aryeh "exists as a current geographical name in Israel and for an area that is more than a little controversial at that. To quote the online version of Haaretz' digital version for 22 September, 2004 noted on 21 September, 2004 at www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=357202&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y (yes, the date is right given the time difference!): "The American experts who examined the planned route of the separation fence near the settlement of Beit Aryeh were not convinced by Israel's claim that this route is necessary to protect flights landing at Ben-Gurion Airport from an assault by a shoulder-launched missile."; Since the territory of this shire is the whole of Israel, we are forced to return this name. [Beit Aryeh, Shire of, LoAR 11/2004, Drachenwald-R]

From Pelican: On Summarizing Name Documentation

I and many other members of the College of Arms spend an inordinate amount of and energy chiding folks for inadequate summarization of documentation. I assume that these lacks are due to not knowing how to summarize documentation. Therefore, here are some thoughts and guidelines for summarizing documentation on a Letter of Intent.

First, what is the purpose of documentation and what should a summarization of documentation include? The purpose of documentation is to show the following:

- that all elements of a name and all spellings used are found before 1650 (or are specifically allowed by the Rules for Submission or Laurel precedent)

- the specific language or culture where each name element/spelling is found

- Demonstrate that the entire name, as well as each name phrase, is constructed properly and that the grammar of each element is correct.

Good summarization pulls out the main points of the documentation and shows how they support the items listed above. It also provides a roadmap that others can use to find, double-check, and evaluate documentation.

Always name your sources. Always cite information so it is easy for others to find.

Bibliographical information is very important to our name game. Because none of us actually live in the middle ages, we must rely on written information to document our submissions. Sometimes we use documents found in period, sometimes we use dictionaries that include dated forms of words and names, and sometimes we use books and journals about historical subjects. Every letter of intent and letter of comment should include some form of bibliography. This can be a list of all works cited in a letter included at the end of the letter, a list of all works cited for an item at the end of each item, or information about a work as you cite it in the course of your letter. Whichever way you choose is acceptable. Bibliographical information should include the following:

- For books, note the name of the book, the author and/or translator, and, for works with multiple editions, the edition number. Other information, such as publisher, or year published, or ISBN can be useful, but is not crucial for our purposes.

- For print articles, note the name of the article, the author, the journal in which the article appeared, and the date of publication.

- For Web pages, note the name of the article, the author (if that information is available), and the URL.

- For Academy of Saint Gabriel letters, note that it is a Saint Gabriel letter, the URL, and the client number.

So, once you've named the work where the documentation is found, how do you make it possible to find the particular bit used as documentation? For works in dictionary format, include the head word, for example, "This name is found in Black, Surnames of Scotland s.n. Lucasson." For other books, include the page number; for books with double columns, include the column number as well. For Web articles, include headwords if the article uses them, or list the particular section if the article is divided into sections.

Be specific. Include examples. Include dates. Associate dates and spellings appropriately.

If the documentation shows the exact form of the name submitted, say so. If there is a date or multiple dates associated with the exact spelling, say so. If the spelling is a header form, say so.

Sometimes you are showing that a constructed name follows a period pattern or that a spelling follows a pattern found in period forms of a name. In this case, include all of the names used to form the pattern and include their associated dates. Note that one example is NOT a pattern. My preference (although this is not a requirement) is for at least three examples of any given pattern.

Sometimes the context in which the name appears matters; sometimes context can show the grammatical case of a name, how it's being used, and whether the name is allegorical or a name used by humans in period. In these cases, it is useful to include a short quote from the documentation showing the name, or the pattern, in question. When citing Laurel precedent, include a quote of the most recent confirmation of the precedent or the most descriptive version.

Translations of documentation are also important - make sure to include a translation of any quote included in your documentation. It doesn't have to be a good translation (although good translations are appreciated), but\it does need to be there. The Babblefish website, http://www.babblefish.com/babblefish/language_webt.htm, can often give enough of a sense of a non-English language that you can use it for your summarization (although it is not a good tool for primary documentation of non-English words and phrases.

I hope this article proves useful to submissions heralds with questions about what is expected when summarizing documentation. Remember, you are not alone out there. If you need help, ask. I am always happy to answer questions about summarizing documentation, as are most members of the College of Arms. There are many online resources and mailing lists where questions about documentation and summarization can be answered. Good luck, and good writing! [CL 09/2004]

The summarization of documentation of the given name cited the wrong header; the documentation in Withycombe was listed s.n. Vitalis, not the cited Violet. Submissions heralds, please be careful to proofread LoIs; misciting documentation may be cause for return. [Vital Sandhurst, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Shoshonna Drakere, the summarization says that Shoshana [sic] is found in the Apocrypha and the New Testament. However, no information was provided for the version or translation where this form was found. Nor were photocopies included; please note that no version of The Bible or any apocrypha appear on the no-photocopy list. Since the College was unable to confirm that this spelling appeared in a period translation, we cannot register this form. [Sosana Drakere, LoAR 09/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The request for authenticity was not summarized on this letter. Had the submitted documentation not already shown this to be an authentic name, we would have been forced to pend this for further research. [Elsbeth Magdalena Drachenfels, LoAR 09/2004, Atlantia-A]

This branch's name was returned in March 2004. As of the September 2004 decision meetings the branch had not resubmitted a name. Since holding names cannot be formed for branches, there is no name to register this armory to, and thus it must be returned. [Litoris Longi, Lyceum, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-R]

Although the documentation was adequately summarized, the name of the author of the article from which the names were documented was not included. Please include author's names when summarizing documentation. It makes it much easier for commenters to verify information and is a professional courtesy to the authors to properly credit their work. [Conrad Burnet, LoAR 09/2004, Lochac-A]

The documentation for this name was not adequately summarized on the LoI. The summarization of the given name was simply that it appeared in a particular source. Although we know that names found in the cited source are all within our period, this source includes names found across a span of 600 years. It is important to note the dates when a particular spelling variant is found when using such a source. Such inadequate summarizations may be sufficient reason to return a name. For more information on properly summarizing documentation, please see this month's cover letter. [Maud la leitiere, LoAR 09/2004, Lochac-A]

Listed on the LoI as Anplica Fiore, the forms and the documentation showed the given name as Anpliça. We have changed the given name back to this form. [Anpliça Fiore, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

This name appeared on the LoI as Caol the Lucky, but the form had Cael the Lucky with Cael changed to Caol. In this case, internal kingdom commentary was included in the packet indicating this change was made at kingdom, but there was no mention of changing the name on the LoI. If a name is changed in kingdom, please mention it on the LoI. [Caol the Lucky, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

[Transfer of branch name and device to Atenveldt, Kingdom of.] A transfer conveys ownership. Only the owner of an item can transfer it to another. An active branch owns its branch name and armory. Therefore, the branch name and device in this transfer do not belong to Ansteorra and Ansteorra has no power to give them away. This is sufficient grounds for return. [Londinium ad Rubrum Flumen, Shire of, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

The name was a resubmission, but the documentation for the parts of the name was not summarized. It is as necessary to summarize the relevant points of documentation for a resubmission as it is for an original submission. Also, for a resubmission, the reason for the original return as well as the returned name should be included in the summarization. Failure to summarize relevant documentation and return information may be reason for the return if the College is unable or unwilling to supply the missing information. [Ælfled æt Otreburne, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

When citing documentation from Black's The Surnames of Scotland, please include the header forms in the summarization. This makes is easier for the commenters to verify documentation. In addition, if the cited source provides dates, the appropriate dates should be included in the summary. [Cicilia Lyon, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

The documentation for his name was not adequately summarized. The College kindly filled in the blanks here. However, had they not done so, this inadequate summary would have been reason to return this name. [Eleyne de Comnocke, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Listed on the LoI as Kaspar von Hemnemstede, both the forms and the documentation list Kaspar von Helmenstede. We have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Kaspar von Helmenstede, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

The summarization did not make it clear that the submitter was interested in an authentic name. See the May 2004 Cover Letter for information on summarizing the authenticity portion of the names forms. [Uilliam Mear mac Faoláin, LoAR 08/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Elinora O'Connor, the form had Eilionora O'Connor; the Eilio was crossed out with Elin written in over it. There was no mention of changing the name on the LoI. If a name is changed at the kingdom level, please mention this on the LoI. If a submitter changes a name by scratching out part of the name on the form, please either have the submitter initial the change, or otherwise note this on the form. Both the submitted and the changed form of this name are registerable. In this instance, since we do not know who made the change on the form, we are registering the name as it appears on the LoI. [Elinora O'Connor, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

Solin and Salomie's Repertorium Nominum Gentilium et Cognominum Latino is not in CoA Administrative Handbook Appendix H, Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel, but no photocopies from this source were included with the submission. If the commenters had not supplied further information about the names documented from this source, we would have been forced to return this name. Please make sure to include photocopies of pages from sources not on the no-photocopy list. [Titus Scipio Germanicus, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

The documentation was not adequately summarized. In this case, only the fact that each name appeared in a particular source was listed. It is not enough to say that a name appears in a book; you have to say what the book says about the name. Failure to summarize documentation means that if the College does not provide documentation, the name will be returned. [Tristan de Poitiers, LoAR 07/2004, Lochac-A]

From Laurel: Outlands Heraldic Title Designator Changes

You will note in the acceptances section changes of designator for several of the Outland's heraldic titles. The request for the change was not put a LoI as a specific numbered item but was included in the body of the letter. The Administrative Handbook, section VI, "Requests for Correction and Change of Registered Items" is unfortunately vague on how changes such as the designator of a branch or in this case the degree of a heraldic title are to be requested.

The advantage of listing each administrative request as a numbered item on an LoI is that the processing of submissions is optimized to handle the numbered items, and is likely to miss requests not made through that process. The unfortunate consequence is the delay in making and publishing the action. We will accept these requests for change but do request and recommend that future such requests be made as numbered items on a LoI. [CL 06/2004]

The submitter made a request for authenticity which was not summarized on the LoI. Therefore, the College's attention was focused on whether this name was registerable rather than authentic. In the future, failure to summarize requests for authenticity on the LoI will be cause to pend a name submission for further research. For more information, see the May Cover Letter. [Einar Andersson, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The only summarization of the documentation for the given name was that it appeared in a particular source; no documentation was included for the byname. By Laurel precedent, the College is not required to document name submissions where the documentation is not adequately summarized on the LoI. In this case, multiple members of the College provided documentation for these names. Because the College was willing to do this extra work, this lack of summarization will not be held against the submitter. Kingdom submissions heralds should be aware that inadequate summarization of supporting documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Diele de Irlande, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Listed on the LoI as Calum O'Morain, the forms shows something between Calum Ó Moráin and Calum O'Moráin. We believe that the submitter intended to submit the former spelling, which is the Gaelic form of the name. The latter form mixes the Anglicized Gaelic particle O' with the Gaelic patronym Morain, names that mix two languages in a single name phrase are not registerable. We have, therefore, registered the name in the all Gaelic form. [Calum Ó Moráin, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

We note that a number of pieces of documentation for the element Aonach were included with the submission but not summarized, including pages from Watson, and Darton The Dictionary of Scottish Placenames. It is unclear whether this documentation was provided by the submitters or found by the Middle Kingdom College. It is important that the College commenters know about documentation being sent to Laurel with any submission, particularly, as in this case, documentation relevant to the meaning and usage of part of this name. [Aonach na Naoi n-Duileach, Shire of, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-R]

The documentation summary cited web articles, but did not include the name of the author of these articles. When citing web articles, please include the name of the author. This not only makes it easier for the commenters to check the documentation, but it is also a professional courtesy to the author. [Geoffrey de Wigmore, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-A]

The documentation for this name was not adequately summarized. The documentation for the given name was merely that the name occurred in a particular source. The summarization gave no dates, nor indicated what the source said about the name. No documentation was included for the byname. If a kingdom cannot find documentation for a particular name, the name should be returned in kingdom or the fact that no documentation could be found should be noted on the LoI with a plea for help to the College. In this case, the College provided the necessary documentation, but absent such work, such inadequate summarization and documentation is and continues to be reason for return. [Thorfinn the Hunter, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-A]

ARABIC

As submitted, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines Turkish and Arabic in the same name, this was declared a step from period practice in June 2001. [Ay{s,}e al-Zahra', LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Submitted as Kaleeb al-Hadra', the gender of the given name is masculine, while the byname is a feminine form. In Arabic, the byname must agree in gender with the given name. According to al-Jamal, "-Hadra (or, more accurately, khadra) is the feminine form of the masculine akhdar." The correct masculine form of the byname is al-Akhdar. We have changed the name to Kaleeb al-Akhdar in order to register it. [Kaleeb al-Akhdar, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Safiyah al-'Attariyah bint 'Abd al-Rahman, the grammar of the nisba, al-'Attariyah, is incorrect. In this case, a hypothetical feminine ending "yah" was added to the end of the masculine form of the nisba, al'Attari [sic], rather than to the root al-'Attar-. The correct feminine form of this nisba is al-'Attarah. We have changed the name to Safiyah al-'Attarah bint 'Abd al-Rahman to correct the grammar. [Safiyah al-'Attarah bint 'Abd al-Rahman, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Mellilah al-Zarqah, the documentation for the byname shows al-Zarqa'. As ah and a' are translterations of different characters/sounds, we have changed the name to Mellilah al-Zarqa' to match the documentation. [Mellilah al-Zarqa', LoAR 01/2005, Middle-A]

As submitted, this name has several problems. First, the name phrase al-Dyula is problematic. No evidence was submitted and none found that Dyula is an Arabic word appropriate for combining with the element al-. Furthermore, Dyula appears to be a modern spelling for this word, which is also found as Diola, Diula, and Jula. Siren notes that "The editor of the Tar&icric;kh al-Sûdân states that the name "Wangara;" (adj. form "al-Wangarî") is the form used in period Arabic documents for this group (Hunswick, p. xxviii)...that justifies "al-Wangariyya" as a feminine byname..." [Amina al-Dyula an-Nisa al-Songhayya, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

The locative byname, an-Nisa al-Songhayya, is not properly formed. In Arabic, the endings of locations are changed to match the gender of the bearer of the name; using a phrase such as an-Nisa "of the woman" to denote gender in a locative byname is not found in Arabic naming practice. In addition, Siren notes "Songhay is not a period Arabic spelling. In documents through the 15th century, the kingdom known as Songhay seems to be called Kawkaw... presumably after Gao, the capital of the state. The identity of Gao with the Songhay empire can be found, for example in the historical discussion at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/SONGHAY.HTM." [Amina al-Dyula an-Nisa al-Songhayya, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Hakim al-Dar el-Beïda, the submitter indicated he was most interested in a name meaning "Hakim from Casa Blanca." As submitted, the byname has several problems. First, al-Dar el-Beida does not mean man from Casablanca, it means the white house . The College was unable to suggest an appropriate form for this byname. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, &AELig;thelmearc-A]

Also, and more important, no documentation was provided that Dar el Beida (or a variant thereof) was the name of this place in period. Although the place known today as Casablanca existed in period, its name in Arabic until the 16th C was Anfa. The town was razed, rebuilt, and renamed Casa Branca by the Portuguese in the 16th C, but did not acquire its present Spanish and Arabic name until the late 18th C. Barring evidence that this is a period name for this place or that it follows period Arabic placename patterns, locative bynames based on Dar el-Beida cannot be registered. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines Arabic and Portuguese in the same name, which is one step from period practice. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines Greek and Arabic; such combinations are one step beyond period practice. [Helene al-Zarqa', 10/2004 LoAR, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines Arabic and Italian in a single name. To register names combining forms from two cultures, documentation of substantial contact between two cultures must be demonstrated. Siren provides such documentation:

Arabs ruled over Sicily from the 9th to the 11th century. Goitein, p. 215 quotes a writer from 11th century Egypt who writes that in one year 10 ships came from Sicily, each carrying some 500 passengers; in what seems a normal year, some 5000 travellers went back and forth. "Sicily" here may include some points between, such as Tunisia, but the numbers are still large.
Arabs and Italians were both deeply involved in the medieval Mediterranean trade. A Muslim traveller, Ibn Jubayr, in 1184 commented on the many Muslims serving in the court at Palermo; this is over 60 years after Roger was crowned king of Sicily in 1130. (Holmes, p. 200). The discussion of Frederick II (1194-1250) says "He made the cosmopolitan culture of Sicily his own, and his court was rich in scholars of Islam, astrologers, exotic animals... (p. 223). Goitein, S.D., A Mediterrranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol 1: Economic Foundations. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1967. Holmes, George (ed.), The Oxford History of Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford. 1988.

Therefore, names combining Arabic and Italian are one step from period practice, but registerable. We note that names combining Arabic and Italian forms in a single name are highly unlikely. The name would have an Italian version used in an Italian context and an Arabic version used in an Arabic context. [Amat al-Shakoor di Riccardo, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it mixes Arabic and Spanish in the same name, which is one step from period practice. While we know that combinations of names from the two naming pools occurred, the names were rendered in forms appropriate for one or the other language. Second, there is a more than 300 year gap between the 10th C date for Sadaqat or Sadaqah and the 15th C date for Salas. [Sadaqat Salas, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

The documentation for this submission was not adequately summarized. It is not sufficient summarization of documentation to say a particular name appears in a particular source without giving any information such as the page number, header listing, dates or descriptions of relevant text. In this case, the College kindly filled in the missing information. However, had they not done this, we would have been forced to return this submission for lack of adequate documentation. [Fionnabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Abd al-Rahman al-Javier, the submitter requested authenticity for Moorish Spain. The byname al-Javier combines Arabic and Spanish in a single name phrase in violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency...Therefore, we have changed the locative to a fully Spanish form, giving Abd al-Rahman de Javier. [Abd al-Rahman de Javier, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Arabic and Spanish in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Abd al-Rahman de Javier, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Spanish and Arabic, which is one step from period practice. [Damiana al-Andalusiyya, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Dharr al-Nasir al-Mawsili, the submitter requested authenticity for 16th C Ottoman. We note that the Ottomans were Turks; this is an Arabic name, not a Turkish name. [Dharr ibn 'Abu al-Nasir al-Mawsili, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Katherine 'Akka, the byname is an Arabic form of Acre, used as an unmarked locative. Unfortunately, Arabic does not form bynames using unmarked locatives. Therefore, we have changed the name to Katherine of Acre, which the submitter indicated was an acceptable alternative form. [Katherine of Acre, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The byname al-Rakhshandra has several problems. First, the submitted documentation shows the spelling Rakhshanda not Rakhshandra. Second, Qazi, What's in a Muslim Name, the source for this name, lists it as an 'ism (given name). The submitter has attempted to turn it into a laqab (a type of epithet) by adding an al- in front of it, but Arabic names almost never form laqabs this way. Finally, no evidence was provided and none found that Rakshanda is a name found in period. This name is found only in Qazi, where it is shown as a modern name. Barring evidence that it is a period name, it cannot be registered.

The problems with this name illustrate the problems with using Qazi as a source: it is intended for use by those interested in forming a modern Muslim name, most of the names are undated, and at least some of the modern or undated names are unique to this source. While it may be a reasonable place to start name research, it is not a reasonable place to end it. At one time, it was a useful source because no better resources were available. However, this is no longer the case. Therefore, Qazi is longer be acceptable as adequate documentation or support for an SCA name. [Jaida al-Rakhshandra, LoAR 06/2004, West-R]

BIBLICAL NAMES

Mara was documented as a Biblical name from a Spanish translation. The name appears in Ruth 1:20. The Wycliffe translation of the Bible into Middle English, which appeared in 1395, gives this passage as "To whiche sche seide, Clepe ye not me Noemy, that is, fair, but clepe ye me Mara, that is, bittere; for Almyyti God hath fillid me greetli with bitternesse." Mara is, therefore, also a valid Middle English spelling for this Biblical name. [Mara Sutherland, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Shoshonna Drakere, the summarization says that Shoshana [sic] is found in the Apocrypha and the New Testament. However, no information was provided for the version or translation where this form was found. Nor were photocopies included; please note that no version of The Bible or any apocrypha appear on the no-photocopy list. Since the College was unable to confirm that this spelling appeared in a period translation, we cannot register this form. [Sosana Drakere, LoAR 09/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Although there is no evidence that the name Jerusha was actually used in England during our period, names from the Bible are generally registerable for languages/cultures such as English where Biblical names are found in the naming pool. This general precept has been stated time and again over the years. We note the the spelling of the given name is a Middle English spelling as well as a modern English spelling; Jerusha appears in Wycliffe's translation of the Bible from the late 14th C. Wycliffe's Bible is available at http://www.sbible.boom.ru/wyc/wycle.htm. [Jerusha Kilgour, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

BRANCH NAMES

Although the form said that the submitter would not accept changes, we received a letter, via Gold Falcon, signed by the branch senechal and herald allowing changes and stating a preference for the name Amlesmore. We have made this change in order to register the name. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This group is located in the county of Wyndham, VT. For purpose of registration, this is identical to the name being transfered here Wyndhame, Canton of. According to precedent:

the name may run afoul of section III.A.9 of the Administrative Handbook: No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context. Thus, in the present case, we would not have registered Tornio or Torneå, those being the currently used names for the town. The submitted name differs from each of these by one syllable, and that is generally considered sufficient difference for personal names. Again, we see no point in treating place names differently. [Torna, Canton of, 06/01, A-Drachenwald]

There is no difference in sound and there is only a difference of a single letter here, the silent -e at the end of the county name. [Wyndhame, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

The Administrative Handbook section III.A.9 says "No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context."; In the case of branch names, this means a branch cannot use a name is a mundane location within its territory is known currently by that name. Unfortunately, Metron Ariston notes that Beit Aryeh "exists as a current geographical name in Israel and for an area that is more than a little controversial at that. To quote the online version of Haaretz' digital version for 22 September, 2004 noted on 21 September, 2004 at www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=357202&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y (yes, the date is right given the time difference!): "The American experts who examined the planned route of the separation fence near the settlement of Beit Aryeh were not convinced by Israel's claim that this route is necessary to protect flights landing at Ben-Gurion Airport from an assault by a shoulder-launched missile."; Since the territory of this shire is the whole of Israel, we are forced to return this name. [Beit Aryeh, Shire of, LoAR 11/2004, Drachenwald-R]

The question was raised whether Glen Rathlin was too close to Isle of Rathlin; the latter is a placename in the territory owned by this group. The Administrative Handbook section III.A.9 says "No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context." Glen and Isle are different in sound, appearance, and meaning. This would be sufficient to clear conflict between two SCA branch names, and we see no reason why the same standard would not apply here. [Glen Rathlin, Shire of, LoAR 06/2004, Drachenwald-A]

BYNAMES -- Descriptive

Submitted as Snæbj{o,}rn snjalløx Hákonsson, the descriptive byname is not formed according to Old Norse naming practice. All examples of compound bynames whose second element is a weapon have as their first element adjectives that are visually recognizable qualities of the weapon itself. Examples of "ax" names include descriptives of types or appearances of axes: breiðöx 'broad axe', skorbildr 'scoring axe', and svartleggja 'black-legged (handled) axe.' Such bynames would be understood as meaning "with the scoring axe" or "with the black-legged axe." The byname snjalløx, however, uses snjall 'quick' which is descriptive of the weapon's bearer rather than the weapon itself; the reasonable meaning here would be "quick with an axe." Although a Middle English example Snellesward "quick sword" was shown with such a meaning, evidence of a pattern in Middle English is not evidence of the same pattern in Old Norse. Barring documentation for this pattern in Old Norse bynames, the constructed byname snjalløx is not registerable. We have dropped this byname in order to register the name. [Snæbj{o,}rn Hákonarson, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

The byname is disallowed under RFS VI.2, Names Claiming Powers. You may not style yourself 'the sorceress' in the Society. Precedent set March 2001 says:

The byname means Wizard and thus violates RfS VI.2: Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous. Barring evidence that he is a wizard, or that this byname was used by normal humans in period, we have to return this.

This name is directly analogous. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

While not cause for return, there are grammatical, spelling, and transcription problems with the name. First, the spelling of the byname in the documentation is Seiðkona, not Sieðkona. Second, in Old Norse, bynames using in or inn are always weak adjectival forms, but Sieðkona [sic] is a noun meaning sorcoress or witch. Finally, by precedent, descriptive bynames in Old Norse are always transcribed in all lowercase. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Some submitters noted that the name contained two descriptive bynames, which had been unregisterable. However precedent, set in May 2002, states "a name using two non-patronymic bynames in Old Norse is registerable so long as the bynames could reasonably be used to simultaneously describe the same person." This is the case here. [Svanhild bogsveiga færeyska, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Timm der Bährherz, the intended meaning of Bährherz is "bear-heart." Other examples of "bear" bynames, Bärenfeller and Bärensteiner, suggest that Bärenherz would be the appropriate formation for this name. In addition, no documentation was submitted for "bear" bynames in German including the article. Therefore, we have changed this name to Timm_Bärenherz. [Timm Bärenherz, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Rodulf der Schützer...the grammar of the byname is incorrect; Schützer is an adjectival form of der Schütze. [Rudolf der Schütze, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

No documentation was presented that Zwickel is a German placename; the submitted documentation indicates that it is a descriptive byname. However, her husband's registered name is Kollack von Zweckel, so the byname is grandfathered to his spouse and immediate family. [Rebecca von Zweckel, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

The byname skullcleaver is a translation of the Old Norse hausakljúfr. Because the byname is documented in Old Norse, the Lingua Anglica rule allows us to register its English translation. [Galti skullcleaver, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

The byname the wise is a translation of the Old Norse in spaka. Because the byname is documented in Old Norse, the Lingua Anglica rule allows us to register its English translation. [Þórunn the wise, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

Submitted as Birna Rauða, the byname is in the strong adjectival form. According to Geirr Bassi, "The strong feminine is endingless, but root a becomes (o,)." In addition, precedent only allows the registration of Old Norse bynames in all lowercase. We have changed the name to Birna rauð to correct the grammar and make it consistent with precedent. If the submitter is interested in a weak adjectival form of the byname, we suggest in rauða. [Birna rauð, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Erlan Norðskáld, the proposed byname, Norðskáld, is not a plausible Old Norse byname and is not constructed following period Old Norse patterns for descriptive bynames. The intended meaning of this byname is "skald from the Northlands." However, no documentation was submitted and none found showing that compound bynames were formed by combining a locative protheme and an occupational deuterotheme. We do have two examples of individuals bearing both an occupational and a locative byname. These are from Lindorm Eriksson" The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions": Tólir bryti í róði (Tolir the steward of Roðr) and Þorkell Rekkr í Lundi (Þorkell Warrior of Lund). Zoegi [sic], A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic shows norðrland as a word for Iceland, or more particularly the northern region of Iceland. We have changed the name to Erlan skáld_í Norðrlandi to match these examples. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Raina Iskramor, the submitter suggested that Iskramor was justified as a descriptive byname. However, the lists of themes in Wickenden, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names are those found in given names; Wickenden does not address the formation of descriptive bynames in this section. Furthermore, the example given for this theme, Iskrets, shows the terminal a mutating to an e. Iskremor is a properly constructed given name using the themes Iskra and Mor. However, as submitted, the name consists of two given names and no bynames. We have changed the name to Raina Iskremorova, which corrects the formation of the byname and changes it to a patronymic. [Raina Iskremorova, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

While the word Contrarye has several attested meanings in period, none of them is appropriate for a a descriptive byname. The period meanings boil down to "opposite of, opposed to, antagonistic toward" and in each example contrary contains a comparitive; for each person, state, or emotion there is a contrary person, state, or emotion to which it is compared. The definition that makes a reasonable byname, of antagonistic or untoward disposition, perverse, or obstinately self-willed" is dated to 1850. If the submitter is interested in a byname with a similar meaning, we suggest le Wilfulle dated to 1275 in Reaney, The Origins of English Surnames. [Jane the Contrarye, LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-R]

Submitted as Symon Cynder. no documentation was submitted and none found that cynder is a reasonable descriptive byname. The definitions found in the OED suggest it is not. The only definition we found in period that is even applicable to humans is "The 'ashes' of a dead body after cremation or (transf.) decomposition; a1547 SURREY Æneid IV. (R.), Is there no fayth Preseru'd to the cinders of Sichee?" However, we doubt this definition is applicable to a living person. The submitter indicated he was willing to change the byname to the French Cendré; this name is found in Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille. We have changed the name to Symon Cendré in order to register it. [Symon Cendré, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

In Old Norse, adjectival bynames must agree in gender with the given name; the correct feminine version of the submitted byname is in ákafa. We have made this change to correct the grammar of the byname. [Eilina in áákafa, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Svein Sutari Svithanda, the name contains two descriptive bynames, a practice that is very rare in Old Norse names. However, Golden Pillar notes the following precedent:

This name contains two non-patronymic bynames in Norse, which has previously been cause for return. Gunnvör silfrahárr (formerly Gunnora Hallakarva) found examples of people who were referred to using two non-patronymic bynames simultaneously. She provided the following examples and translations so each name may be viewed in context:

(1) Þórsteinn surts inn spaka (Thórsteinn Black the Wise) - Laxdæla saga (c. 1245), ch. 6. Ósk hét hin fjórða dóttir Þórsteins rauðs. Hún var móðir Þorsteins surts hins spaka er fann sumarauka. [Ósk was the name of the fourth daughter of Þórsteinn rauðr. She was the mother of Þórsteinn surts inn spaka, who found the "Summer eke".]

(2) Ari prests hins fróði (Ari the priest the wise) - Landnámabók ch. 83. Þórsteinn Hallsson var faðir Gyðríðar, móður Jóreiðar, móður Ara prests hins fróða. [Þórsteinn Hallsson was the father of Gyðríðr, who was the mother of Jóreiðr, who was the mother of Ari prests hins fróða.]

(3) Þórolfr Mostrarskeggr - Eyrbyggja saga ch. 3 (prepended and appended by-names) Hrólfr var höfðingi mikill og hinn mesti rausnarmaður. Hann varðveitti þar í eyjunni Þórshof og var mikill vinur Þórs og af því var hann Þórólfr kallaður. Hann var mikill maður og sterkur, fríður sýnum og hafði skegg mikið. Því var hann kallaður Mostrarskegg. [Hrólfr was a mighty chief, and a man of the greatest largesse. He had the ward of Thór's temple there in the island, and was a great friend of Thór, and therefore he was called Þórolfr. He was a big man and a strong, fair to look on, and had a great beard; therefore was he called Mostrarskeggr, and he was the noblest man in the island.

Given these examples, a name using two non-patronymic bynames in Old Norse is registerable so long as the bynames could reasonably be used to simultaneously describe the same person. In the case of the submitted name, the two bynames mean 'shrieking' and 'woman from the Orkney Islands'. These bynames have different meanings and could both have described the same person at the same point in her life. Therefore, this name is registerable. [Þórdís gjallandi eyverska, 05/02, A-Outlands]

Precedent requires that descriptive bynames in Old Norse be transcribed in all lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Svein sutari svithanda; the name means "Svein the tanner, earthscorcher." [Svein sutari svithanda, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

Irresponsible is too implausible to register as a byname. In the return of Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade, Laurel said:

Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid', le Wis the wise', Badinteheved bad in the head', le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud', le Hardy the courageous', le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil', Blaksoule black-soul'. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname." [Jaelle of Armida, LoAR October 1996]

Irresponsible is first found in 1648 in a prose defense of the execution of Charles I. The word is not used as a descriptive human trait, but rather as a description of an action. [Aelfwyn the Irresponsible, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-R]

The submitter attempted to justify the byname as a Norse byname under lingua anglica. However the Lingua Anglica allowance requires that the byname be a translation of an attested byname in the original language. The cover letter that accompanied the January 1993 LoAR included a clarification of the Lingua Anglica allowance, including:

Less codified, but of long practice, has been the translation of epithets into our lingua franca. Again, this follows a common historian's usage: Harald I of Norway, for instance, is far better known as Harald Fairhair than by the untranslated Harald Haarfagr. Eric the Red, Philip the Good, Charles the Fat, all are translations of the period names, not the period names themselves. SCA names are permitted a similar translation: a simple epithet, documented as a period form, may be translated into English. (We prefer to register the untranslated form, but I concede that such rigor doesn't always serve our clients' best interests.) [Cover Letter for LoAR January 1993]

As no documentation of a Norse byname meaning 'the Irresponsible' was presented, the Lingua Anglica allowance does not apply here. [Aelfwyn the Irresponsible, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-R]

Submitted as Liadan an Shionnach, the documentation showed no examples of this byname that included the article. Therefore, we have changed the name to Liadan_Shionnach to match the documentation. [Liadan Shionnach, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Originally submitted as Ulfarr inn frækni, it was changed in kingdom to Úlfarr inn fr{oe}kni to match the submitted documentation. However, Orle and Argent Snail both provided examples of the byname spelled frækna including "valiant, stouthearted." In addition, accents in Old Norse names are optional as long as they are used or dropped consistently. Therefore, we have change the name back to the originally submitted form. [Ulfarr inn frækni, LOAR 11/2004, East-A]

There was some question whether the byname Incorrigible was registerable; it appears to be one of those literary, overly abstract words that had previously been ruled unregisterable:

[returning the nickname Arronious] (Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade) Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid', le Wis the wise', Badinteheved bad in the head', le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud', le Hardy the courageous', le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil', Blaksoule black-soul'. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname. (Jaelle of Armida, LoAR October 1996, p. 8)

However, while Incorrigible is not a straightforward descriptive, it is found in its earliest definition as a descriptive of a person and his/her actions, not to ideas or things. Therefore, we will give the submitter the benefit of the doubt and register this byname. [Mat O Deane the Incorrigible, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Rhodri ap Tewdwr Awenydd, several commenters questioned whether Awenydd, which was documented as meaning soothsayer or medium, was a claim to supernatural powers. Such claims are forbidden by RfS VI.2, which says "Society names may not claim divine descent, superhuman abilities or powers that the submitter does not actually possess." The dictionary definition of the word awenydd is simply "poet"; for example, the word is found with that meaning in the title of a book of Welsh poetry, R. S. Thomas, Y Caer Awenydd (R. S. Thomas, the Great Poet). However, a Web search shows a great number of English language sites that believe and use this word in the way defined by the submitter's documentation -- as a soothsayer, magician, or medium. As such, then, the use of Awenydd as a byname is a claim to superhuman abilities and is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered the name as Rhodri ap Tewdwr. [Rhodri ap Tewdwr, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

The question was raised whether the byname Halvedievel is a violation of RfS VI.2, which says "Society names may not claim device descent, superhuman abilities or powers that the submitter does not actually possess." If we were to take the name literally (as, for example, one would in a Japanese anime), then yes, this name would be a claim to be of non-human descent. However, it is a common practice in English to call a naughty child a "little devil"; it is a common analogous nickname. Just like the naughty child, it is extremely unlikely that the nickname Halvedievel refers to the descent rather than the behaviour of the person so named. Therefore, the name is registerable. [Wulfric Halvedievel, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

[Ari svarthjálmr.] Submitted as Ari svartihjálmr, the question was raised whether svarti-, meaning black, swarthy, was used to describe the color of objects rather than the color of hair, skin, and fur. Geir T Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, http://www.northvegr.org/zoega, lists svartaðr "dyed black", and svart-leggja, an axe with a black handle;" this seems sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. The examples found in Zoëga and those supplied by Orle from Cleasby, Richard and Guðbrandr Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary suggest that svarthjálmr is the correct formation for this name. We have made this change. We note that the nickname means "black helmet" not "dark helmet." [Aran Darkhelm, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

No documentation was provided and none found of a Russian byname meaning "indifferent"; therefore this name cannot be registered under the lingua anglica allowance. Furthermore, by precedent, overly abstract English bynames of this sort are not registerable:

Niobe the Forgetful. [May 2002 LoAR Atlantia-R] "The byname the Forgetful has been registered a total of seven times, most recently in May 1994. Since that time, there have been several rulings regarding abstract descriptive bynames, including:
[returning the nickname the Arronious] Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid, le Wis the wise, Badinteheved bad in the head, le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud, le Hardy the courageous, le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil, Blaksoule black-soul. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname. (Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade, 10/96 p. 8)

The same argument applies to the byname the Indifferent. [Vlad the Indifferent, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-R]

As documented, Ulfsaxi should be a given name, but, we do not register names that consist only of two given names. The submitter does note a byname, sax that sounds similar to Saxi. Unfortunatly [sic], this cannot be substituted for -saxi since no documentation was provided and none found that Norse descriptive bynames were formed by combining ulf- with the words for random objects. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

While the word staunch, meaning "of a person:standing true to ones principles or purpose" is first found in 1623, precedent allows registration of such bynames even when they are found in the gray area.

[the Runt] While the sense of 'runt' probably intended by the client is clearly post-Period, the meaning dated to 1614 of 'an ignorant, uncouth, or uncultivated person' falls within our 'grey area'. (LoAR 8/91 p.12)

In this case, the intended meaning falls within our grey area (between 1600 and 1649). While this name is highly unlikely, it is registerable. [Edward the Staunch, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Conrad de Burnet, the documentation shows that Burnet is a nickname for someone with brown hair. Because Burnet is not a placename, we have dropped the locative preposition de. [Conrad Burnet, LoAR 09/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Brigit Camshrón, Gaelic grammar requires a descriptive byname such as Camshrón to lenite when used with a feminine given name; therefore, we have changed the name to Brigit Chamshrón to correct its grammar. [Brigit Chamshrón, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Ádísa [sic] Hrefna Úlfsdóttir, the submitter allowed only minor changes. Hrefna is a feminine given names derived from the word hrafn. Geirr Bassi shows the prepended nickname Hrafn-, meaning raven, and lists other bird names as non-prepended bynames, including hegri "heron", hani "rooster", assa "eagle", and masi "seagull". He also lists kraka and kraku- as both a non-prepended and a prepended byname meaning "crow." Given these citations, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt that hrafn can be used as a non-prepended byname. However, when non-prepended Old Norse bynames are transcribed, they are written in all lowercase. We have, therefore, changed this name to Adísa hrafn Úlfsdóttir to reflect this. [Adísa hrafn Úlfsdóttir, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

There was some discussion whether Codlatach, 'sleepy', was a word found in period. MacBain, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, s.n. cadal (sleep) says "Irish codladh, Old Irish cotlud." A search of CELT, http://www.ucc.ie/celt, finds examples of "cotlud" in Old/Middle Irish contexts and "codladh" in Early Modern Irish contexts. Codlatach is a reasonable adjectival form of Codladh; therefore, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt and registering this name as submitted. [Seán Codlatach, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Although the cited Web site shows that B{e,}kart is a modern Polish word meaning "bastard", no documentation was provided and none found to suggest that the word B{e,}kart was used as a byname in period, that it follows a pattern found in descriptive Polish bynames in period, or that it is even a period word. Barring such documentation, this byname is not registerable. [Mikolaj B{e,}kart, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The byname, of Silverleaf, is not consistent with period English placename patterns. A search through Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames shows one example of a placename using the word leaf; Whyteleaf dated to 1839. Without documentation that the theme leaf was used in period English placenames, it cannot be registered as part of a constructed English placename. The submitted documentation supports the nickname Silverleaf. To change the byname from a locative to a nickname, we would drop the preposition of. However, the submitter will not accept changes. [Elissent of Silverleaf, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-R]

Submitted as R{o,}gnvaldr Sax, descriptive bynames in old Norse are transcribed in all lowercase (see the October 2002 Cover Letter for details). We have changed this name to R{o,}gnvaldr sax. [R{o,}gnvaldr sax, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

Submitted as Dominika Anatolikina, Metron Ariston notes a problem with the derivation of the byname:

The cited form of the masculine name alluded to in Chavez' article is Anatolicus, the Latin form, which in this case is derived from a Greek form that could be transliterated as Anatolikos. However, this name is geographical in origins and derives from an adjective used to describe someone who came from Anatolia. The use of this sort of adjective as a given name was common for slaves and many early Christian given names were of this sort. However, in the relatively early Byzantine period alluded to in the documentation, a byname would probably be still adjectival in nature rather than patronymic when using this adjective so the basic adjective should simply be changed to the feminine which would give a transliterated form such as Dominika Anatolika, which would mean Dominika the Anatolian.

We have, therefore, changed the name to Dominika Anatolika. [Dominika Anatolika, LoAR 07/2004, Artemisia-A]

The submitter noted that Ironhair was intended to mean "someone who curls her hair with a curling or crisping iron." The intended construction is verb+object; a not uncommon form of English nickname. However, this meaning is highly unlikely. While the word Cryspyngeyren (crisping or curling iron) is dated to 1483 in the OED, the verb in this construction is "crisp" or "crisping", not "iron." The OED dates the first instance of the word "iron" as a verb meaning "smooth or press with a heated flat-iron" to 1680. Before that date, the meaning is to cover with iron, or to shackle with irons. The nickname Ironhair is more likely to denote someone with strong hair or iron colored hair. [&Aelig;lfwin Ironhair, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Donn na Gall Ui Neill, no documentation was submitted and none found for using the definite article na with the descriptive byname Gall. The submitter explicitly accepted changing the given+descriptive names to the name Donngall, so we have registered this name as Donngall Ui Neill. [Donngall Ui Neill, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Carlos el Lobo, no documentation was submitted nor any found for forming Spanish animal bynames with an article. We have registered this name as Carlos_Lobo to match period examples. [Carlos Lobo, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Gwenllian Pengrych ferch Rhys, Welsh grammar requires that the descriptive bynames that start with the letter p must be lenited when used with a feminine given name. We have, therefore, lenited the byname, which changes the spelling to Gwenllian Bengrych ferch Rhys. [Gwenllian Bengrych ferch Rhys, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

Furthermore, the epithet "Toe Mangler" cannot be supported. To use an English epithet in an otherwise Arabic name, the epithet must be either a reasonable English descriptive byname or a translation of an Arabic descriptive byname. No evidence was provided and none found that "Toe Mangler" is either of these. Therefore, it is not registerable. [Haroun al-Rashid the Toe Mangler, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The epithet, though the word was dated to the late 16th C, is far too late to have been used in this kind of epithetical formation. Furthermore, the byname is based on an abstract concept, a usage not generally found in English epithets. In 10/96, Laurel returned Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade with these remarks, "Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid', le Wis the wise', Badinteheved bad in the head', le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud', le Hardy the courageous', le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil', Blaksoule black-soul'. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company." The learned Skeptic is a similar stretch. The submitter may want to consider a byname based on a more concrete attribute. [Phillip the Skeptic, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Although Tselomudrenni was documented as constructed from a Russian word meaning "the chaste," no evidence was submitted and none found suggesting this byname was either used in Russia or followed a pattern of Russian descriptive bynames. We would drop this element, but the submitter would not accept major changes. Therefore, this name must be returned. [Voron Gregor'ev Tselomudrenni, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

...However, the Oxford English Dictionary dates the spelling vigilant as an adjective meaning "wakeful and watchful" to 1480. This seems a reasonable English descriptive byname, and has the sound and meaning desired by the submitter. We have changed the spelling to Justina Elizabeth Vigilant to match the form found in the OED. [Justina Elizabeth Vigilant, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Anne the Shy, this spelling of the byname is not found until after the mid 17th C. We have changed the spelling to Shey, a spelling dated to 1600 in the OED.

Although the epithet the Shy is far-fetched, it is not impossible. The OED's first citation is in 1000, "Riming Poem 43 (Gr.) Nu min hre{dh}er is hreoh heowsi{dh}um [read heofsi{dh}um] sceoh nydbys{dh}um neah". Talan Gwynek provides these translations and gloss:

Fairly literally, retaining the OE word order:
Now my heart/mind is troubled, of lamentable occurrences
shy, to troubles near; departs by night in flight what
before in day was dear/precious/excellent.

More idiomatically:

Now my heart/mind is troubled, easily frightened by
lamentable occurrences, near to troubles; what before in
day was dear/precious/excellent flees by night.

Notes:

<Hreþer> is both 'heart' and 'mind'; since I'm not trying for a poetic translation, I'll leave it as 'heart/mind'.

The word <hêofsîþ> is from a root <hêof-> seen in <hêof> 'wailing, mourning, grief' and <hêofan> 'to lament', and <sîð>, a word with many meanings: 'going, motion, journey, errand; departure, death; expedition, undertaking, enterprise; road, way; time, turn, occasion; conduct, way of life, manner; fate, destiny, experience, hap, fortune'. <Hêofsîþ> is glossed 'lamentable state' in Clark Hall & Meritt's OE dictionary, but in context something like 'lamentable occurrences' seems better.

<Scêoh> is glossed 'shy, timid' by CH&M; the OED s.v. <shy> usefully has exactly this line as its first citation for the obsolete sense 'easily frightened or startled'.

We find the word with the same meaning used by Shakespeare in Measure for Measure, "A shie fellow was the Duke." Given the long history of this word, we are inclined to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt that it could have given rise to an epithet meaning "timid or easily frightened." [Anne the Shey, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-A]

BYNAMES -- Locative and toponymic

Submitted as Ariadne de Glevum, the grammar of the byname is incorrect. Metron Ariston explains, "Since she is using a Latin locative form, the grammar of the phrase should be Latin as well. Since the preposition de is followed by the ablative, the name should be Ariadne de Glevo." We have made this change to fix the grammar. [Ariadne de Glevo, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, Nebuly notes:

Although locative bynames formed using the preposition z do appear in period Polish, the construction is far more typical of Czech. Poles used the suffix -ski/-ska far more frequently...

The biggest headache with using the explicit locative form is that the object of the preposition z must be put into the genitive, which is never easy in Polish. The genitive ending depends not only on the gender of the object (masculine, feminine, or neuter) which cannot always be determined by its ending (some masculine nouns and in -a), but also depends upon the ultimate etymological derivation of the noun, its current function, the value (hard or soft) of the final consonant and which vowels happen to follow, and whether the noun is inherently "alive" or inherently "plural". My best guess in this case is that the genitive of Gosprzydowa is Gosprzydowy.

We have changed the name to Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowy in order to correct the grammar. We note that Miros{l/}awa Gosprzydowska is a much more usual form of this name; however, it is a bigger change and the submitter did not request authenticity. [Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Taran of Azov, the locative combines Russian and English in a single name phrase. Therefore, we have changed the name to the completely Russian Taran z Azov. [Taran z Azov, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

The locative byname, an-Nisa al-Songhayya, is not properly formed. In Arabic, the endings of locations are changed to match the gender of the bearer of the name; using a phrase such as an-Nisa "of the woman" to denote gender in a locative byname is not found in Arabic naming practice. In addition, Siren notes "Songhay is not a period Arabic spelling. In documents through the 15th century, the kingdom known as Songhay seems to be called Kawkaw... presumably after Gao, the capital of the state. The identity of Gao with the Songhay empire can be found, for example in the historical discussion at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CIVAFRCA/SONGHAY.HTM." [Amina al-Dyula an-Nisa al-Songhayya, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Lucrezia Sarta di Napoli, da is the usual locative preposition in Italian bynames. We have changed the name to Lucrezia Sarta da Napoli to correct the grammar. [Lucrezia Sarta da Napoli, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Finally, although there are many examples of placenames of the form "placename on the rivername" in English, there is no evidence locative bynames were ever formed using such phrases. We generally allow attested English placenames to be used as English locative bynames because there is a well attested pattern of such translations. However, because there is no evidence for complete phrase placenames being used as locative bynames, such names used as bynames are a step beyond period practice. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

No documentation was submitted and none found for the use of the element Lac in French placenames. While Dauzat et Rostaing, Dicitionaaire [sic] étymologique des noms de lieus en France, lists one Lac name, Lac-des-Rouges-Truites, there are no dated forms; this indicates that the placename is modern. Barring such documentation, French placenames using the element Lac modified by an adjective or adjectival phrase cannot be registered. The unmodified element Lac is a reasonable byname. [Cecilia du Lac d'Argent, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Avelyn of the Oak_Grove, no examples were found of placenames or locatives with either the prothemes Oak-/Oke-/Oken- and the deuterotheme -grove with a space between protheme and deuterotheme. In addition, the form of this name is a locative rather than a generic topographic; in this case the article the is not used. We have changed the name to Avelyn of_Oakgrove to match period English naming practice. [Avelyn of Oakgrove, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Hakim al-Dar el-Beïda, the submitter indicated he was most interested in a name meaning "Hakim from Casa Blanca." As submitted, the byname has several problems. First, al-Dar el-Beida does not mean man from Casablanca, it means the white house . The College was unable to suggest an appropriate form for this byname. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, &AELig;thelmearc-A]

There was some question whether Argyll was a unique surname of the Campbells based on the statement from Black, "Sir Duncan Campbell...created Lord Campbell in 1445, was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll..." However, the full quote makes it clear that Argyll is adopted as a locative, "Sir Duncan Cambell or Cambelle of Lochow,...was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll in addition to, and sometimes in place of Lochow." There is a well attested pattern of inherited surnames in Scotland that are formed from placenames; although Argyll is not documented as a surname, it is documented as a placename. [Angus Argyll of Clyde, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Nadezhda Volynskaia, the documentation shows the name of the town from which the locative was formed as Volyn'. We have changed the name to Nadezhda Volyn'skaia to match the documentation. [Nadezhda Volyn'skaia, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Spurius Titinius Odessus Maximus, Metron Ariston notes, "Odessus is the name of a city and would not be used unmodified in this way as a cognomen. Instead it would be transformed into an adjectival form....using standard Latin rules for the formation on such locative adjectives would be Odessius." We have, therefore, changed the name to Spurius Titinius Odessius Maximus. [Spurius Titinius Odessius Maximus, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Aveline Karnatz, the locative byname Karnatz, was documented as a header form in Bahlow, German Names. Bahlow gives no dates for this name, nor does he suggest that it was found in period. The earliest documented form of the name the College was able to find was dated to 1704. Without documentation of this name in period, it cannot be registered. We have substituted the placename Carnyn, dated to 1346 in Brechenmacher Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen. This name is similar, although not identical in sound, to the submitted Karnatz. [Aveline Carnyn, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Submitted as Drogo of Black Forge, the grammar of the byname marks it as a placename. However, no evidence was found of the use of the element Forge in compound English placenames. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames s.n. Forge, lists a Ralph del Forge in 1297. We have changed the byname to that form in order to register the name. [Drogo del Forge, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Submitted as Conrad de Burnet, the documentation shows that Burnet is a nickname for someone with brown hair. Because Burnet is not a placename, we have dropped the locative preposition de. [Conrad Burnet, LoAR 09/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Geneviève de Barbarel, Morlet Dictionaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille says that Barbarel is a diminutive of barbier, "barber", while Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames indicate it is a matronymic based on the name Barbara. There is no evidence to suggest it is a locative that should appear with the preposition de. Therefore we have dropped the preposition de. [Geneviève Barberel, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

The byname, Mountvoir, is not a plausible placename. The submitter wished a placename meaning "mountain view" and constructed the name from parts of English names that originally derived from French placenames. However, no documentation was submitted or any found that a specific geographic feature, such as a mountain is a reasonable modifier for "view" in period placenames. A search of Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames, reveals only two placenames using the deuterotheme -voir, Belvoir, "beautiful view", and Belvedere, which is a form of Belvoir. Reaney and Wilson and Ekwall show few names using the prototheme mount- or mont and all either derived from French placenames or have a meaning other than the one desired by the submitter. Dauzat and Rostaing, Dictionnnaire étymologique des nom de lieux en France, s.n. Mons has several pages of names using the protheme Mont-. These include names formed from names of regions, names of villages, personal names, descriptive features of a mountain, military features of a mountain, but no names or themes that would support a name with the desired meaning. Barring evidence of such a name or such a naming pattern in either French or English, this name cannot be registered. [Thomas Mountvoir, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as Melchior auf Missen, the documentation was unclear as to what type of byname Missen was or whether it was a period byname. However, one of the miniatures in Codex Manesee [sic], http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/cpg848, is titled Margrave Heinrich von Misen. We have changed the name to Melchior von Misen to match the documentation. [Melchior von Misen, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

No evidence was submitted and none found that German locative bynames were formed from the names of mountains in period. While we note Berg was used as a topographic byname, this is not the same as using the name of a specific mountain to form a byname. Furthermore, no documentation was presented and none found that Zugspitz was the name for this mountain in period. To register Zugspitzer, we would need documentation of both the specific mountain name and the pattern of forming bynames from names of mountains. If such documentation were presented, we note that Zugspitzer would be the expected form for this byname. [Wilhelm Zugspitzer, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Simona Dell'Amore, the preposition in Italian names is typically shown in all lowercase. We have, therefore, changed this name to Simona dell'Amore. [Simona dell'Amore, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

The byname, of Silverleaf, is not consistent with period English placename patterns. A search through Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames shows one example of a placename using the word leaf; Whyteleaf dated to 1839. Without documentation that the theme leaf was used in period English placenames, it cannot be registered as part of a constructed English placename. The submitted documentation supports the nickname Silverleaf. To change the byname from a locative to a nickname, we would drop the preposition of. However, the submitter will not accept changes. [Elissent of Silverleaf, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-R]

Tir-y-Cwningen is a post-period form of this name. The submitted documentation shows several examples of Tir-y- names, but the earliest of them dates to 1666. The documentation dates the form Tireconynger to 1472. To change the locative to this form would be a major change which the submitter will not accept. Therefore, the name must be returned. [Dobin Tir-y-Cwningen, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Elizabet Alfinnsdottir von Rhine, this name has several problems. First, the byname combines the German von with the English spelling Rhine in violation of RfS III.1.a. A fully German form would be am Reine, dated to 1300 in Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. However, even with the locative in the fully German form, this name is two steps from period practice. The given name is Swedish and the byname is old Norse; this was ruled a step from period practice in 8/2002. Mixing German and Old Norse was ruled a step from period practice in 3/2004. Therefore, we have dropped the locative in order to register this name, leaving Elizabet Alfinnsdottir. [Elizabet Alfinnsdottir, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Betha of Walnut Vale, the byname was justified as a "treename + generic topographic" construction. However, according to the OED, the word Walnut by itself was not used as a tree name until 1600; all earlier citations are for the name of the nut. This makes it extremely unlikely that this is a "tree + generic topographic" construction. However, the OED shows walnotetre in 1400 and Walnott tree in 1483. We have changed the name to Betha of Walnott tree Vale in order to follow period practice. [Betha of Walnott tree Vale, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Draka Bronov, Nebuly notes a problem with the grammar of the locative:

The LoI has misspelled the name of the town listed in Wickenden (p.432). The name of the town is Bran' (or Bron). The soft sign was left off in the LoI, and although it is not necessary for registration, it can affect the grammar when endings are added. In this submission, the locative should be spelled Bronev, since the town's name ends in a "soft" sound.

We have changed the name to Draka Bronev to correct the grammar. [Draka Bronev, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Vincènzo di Bartolomèo de Bréscia, the forms showed Vincènzo di Bartolomèo da Bréscia. The article da is typical for locative bynames in Italian. [Vincenzo di Bartolomeo da Brescia, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

The placename, von Lüchtringen is problematic. No documentation was provided showing that this place existed in period or that this was a reasonable period spelling. However, the website www.luechtringen.de lists the history of this place going back to 822. This page mentions that in 900 the place is called Lutringi with a Lambert von Lüchtringen in 1224. While such websites are unreliable as primary documentation, combined with the Bahlow Deutschelands Geographish Namen citation this is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Wolfgang Eber von Lüchtringen, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Salvatore Rocco de Napoli, we have changed the preposition to da, which is the preposition used for locative bynames in Italian. [Salvatore Rocco da Napoli, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Katherine 'Akka, the byname is an Arabic form of Acre, used as an unmarked locative. Unfortunately, Arabic does not form bynames using unmarked locatives. Therefore, we have changed the name to Katherine of Acre, which the submitter indicated was an acceptable alternative form. [Katherine of Acre, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Wilhelus le Cassé, the summary documented le Cassé from Dauzet, Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et Prenoms de France and said it was "a locative byname [sic], "a man from Cassé," a region in southwestern France." However, this isn't what Dauzat says. Instead, this appears to be a toponymic byname for a man who has oak trees growing on his property. Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille also shows the forms Delcasse and Lecasse. Both Morlet and Dauzet also show a second derivation for the name Casse, a designator for a maker and seller of saucepans ( en anc.fr.; désigne le marchand de casseroles.) Larousse, Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique dates casse, meaning casserole to 1341. Therefore, we are changing this name to Wilhelus le Casse to match the form in Larousse. [Wilhelus le Casse, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Francesco Gaetano Greco de Edessa, the final byname elides to d'Edessa in Italian. We have made this change. [Francesco Gaetano Greco d'Edessa, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

BYNAMES -- Occupational

Submitted as Siegfried Waffenschiemdt, no documentation was submitted and none found that Schiemdt is a word at all. The modern word for "smith" in German is Schmiedt. We have changed the byname to Waffenschmiedt, the header form in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen. [Siegfried Waffenschmiedt, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Geneviève de Barbarel, Morlet Dictionaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille says that Barbarel is a diminutive of barbier, "barber", while Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames indicate it is a matronymic based on the name Barbara. There is no evidence to suggest it is a locative that should appear with the preposition de. Therefore we have dropped the preposition de. [Geneviève Barberel, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Véronique Tortesmains la Parmentiresse, in France in period, literal occupational bynames are written in all lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Véronique Tortesmains la parmentiresse. [Véronique Tortesmains la parmentiresse, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Ælfgyfu seo hearpestre, no evidence was provided and none found that the definite article was used with Anglo-Saxon occupational bynames. We have removed the article and changed the name to Ælfgyfu_hearpestre. [Ælfgyfu hearpestre, LoAR 08/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Some questions were raised whether the byname Poulteress was registerable. The OED dates poulteress to 1723. However, the OED s.n. -ess says, "By writers of the 16th and succeeding centuries derivatives in -ess were formed very freely." The OED shows a large number of such names prior to 1600, most towards the end of the 16th C. Examples include laundresse 1550, cokysse/Cookesse 1459/1552, poetess 1530, and presbyteresse 1546 (we note this denotes the wife of a presbyter or priest). Given this pattern, Poulteress should be registerable, even though there are no dated examples prior to 1732. [Melissa the Poulteress, LOAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Wilhelus le Cassé, the summary documented le Cassé from Dauzet, Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et Prenoms de France and said it was "a locative byname [sic], "a man from Cassé," a region in southwestern France." However, this isn't what Dauzat says. Instead, this appears to be a toponymic byname for a man who has oak trees growing on his property. Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille also shows the forms Delcasse and Lecasse. Both Morlet and Dauzet also show a second derivation for the name Casse, a designator for a maker and seller of saucepans ( en anc.fr.; désigne le marchand de casseroles.) Larousse, Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique dates casse, meaning casserole to 1341. Therefore, we are changing this name to Wilhelus le Casse to match the form in Larousse. [Wilhelus le Casse, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

BYNAMES -- Patronymic and matronymic

Submitted as Sáerlaith ingen Rúadán, the patronymic is in the nominative case rather than the required genitive case. The correct form is Sáerlaith ingen Rúadáin; we have made this change. [Sáerlaith ingen Rúadáin, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Þorgautr Sveinnsson inn upplenzki, the patronymic is incorrectly formed. In Old Norse, the genitive of names ending in -nn are formed by transforming the ending letters to -ns. We have changed the name to Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki to correct the grammar. [Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Ainfean inghean Bheoaodh...In addition, Gaelic grammar requires that the patronymic appear in the genitive case; as submitted it is in the nominative case. We have changed the name to Ainbthine inghean Bheoaodha in order to register it and to correct the grammar. [Ainbhthine inghean Bheoaodha, LoAR 12/2005, Caid-A]

Submitted as Ainmere ó Glass...In addition, Gaelic grammar requires that the patroymic be in the genitive case. Therefore, we have changed the name to Ainmere ua Glaiss to correct the grammar. [Ainmere ua Glaiss, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Nikolaevna doch' Svetokhna, no documentation was submitted and none found for the patronymic preceeding the given name in Russian naming practices. We have changed the name to Svetokhna Nikolaevna doch' to follow documented Russian naming practices. [Svetokhna Nikolaevna doch', LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Ailill mac Ferchair Uí Diarmait, the second patronymic is in the nominative case rather than the required genitive case. The earliest example of this name used as a patronymic we have found is in The Annals of the Four Masters where we find Diarmait Clereach mac Corbmaic Meic Diarmata. While this name appears in an Early Modern Irish context, the spelling of the given name Diarmait is the same in both Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish. Therefore, Diarmata should be the appropriate genitive spelling for Middle Irish; we have made that change. [Ailill mac Ferchair Uí Diarmata, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Raina Iskramor, the submitter suggested that Iskramor was justified as a descriptive byname. However, the lists of themes in Wickenden, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names are those found in given names; Wickenden does not address the formation of descriptive bynames in this section. Furthermore, the example given for this theme, Iskrets, shows the terminal a mutating to an e. Iskremor is a properly constructed given name using the themes Iskra and Mor. However, as submitted, the name consists of two given names and no bynames. We have changed the name to Raina Iskremorova, which corrects the formation of the byname and changes it to a patronymic. [Raina Iskremorova, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Gin Taras, as submitted the name consists of two given names and no bynames. In some languages this formation would be interpreted as a given name and an unmarked patronymic, but unmarked patronymics are unattested in Russian. The documentation for Gin shows an example of this element used as a descriptive byname, although other names using Gin- as a protheme with the same meaning, 'young', are undisputably given names. Since Gin seems plausible as a given name, we have changed the second name to an appropriate patronymic form and registered the name as Gin Taras'ev syn. Wickenden, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names, s.n. Tarassi [sic], cites a Guba Tara'ev [sic] syn in the 15th C. [Gin Taras'ev syn, LoAR 12/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Raynagh Binnech ingen Griffyn, the patronymic phrase combines the Gaelic particle ingen with the English or Welsh patronymic Griffyn in violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency. The introduction to Heather Rose Jones, "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century," says that the Red Book is a collection of Latin documents written by an English speaker; while the names represent English, Irish, and Welsh names, they are written in Latin or English. Therefore, we have dropped the Gaelic patronymic particle in order to register the name. [Raynagh Griffyn, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Flenn ingen Baldwin, as submitted, the name has several problems. First, the patronymic phrase combines Gaelic and English in violation of RfS III.1.a. Linguistic consistency. We have dropped the patronymic marker to make this name phrase registerable. [Faoileann Baldwin, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Faolan MacAodh, the patronymic particle was typically separated from the patronymic in period Gaelic names and written in lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Faolan mac_Aodh. [Faolan mac Aodh, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Seamus mac Duibhne, it is customary in Scottish Gaelic for patronymics beginning with D to lenite. We have changed the spelling to Seamus mac Dhuibhne to correct the grammar. [Seamus mac Dhuibne, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

This name uses a feminine given name with a masculine Gaelic patronymic. In Gaelic, the patronymic particle must match the gender of the given name. [Sarah MacDhai, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-R]

The submitter argued that the byname was plausible as an unmarked patronymic contemporary with the given name, which Withycombe dated to 1199 and 1346. However, none of the dated forms of the patronymic from her period retained the "Æ", meaning that Ælfwine must be an Old English form. Name phrases must be consistent with the grammar and practice of a single language/culture. There is no evidence that unmarked patronymics were used in Old English. As the submitter will not accept changes, we can neither add the patronymic marker to the byname, nor can we change it to an appropriate Middle English unmarked patronymic. [Constancia Ælfwine, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

Conflict with the registered name Meadhbh ni Loingsigh, registered August 1995. Meadhbh is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of Medb and both names have the same pronunciation. According to the Cover Letter of April 2004, the particle inghean or ingen conflicts with the particle ni, because the pronunciation is nearly identical. [Medb ingen Loingsigh, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Adelindis filia Gotefrid, the patronymic appears in the nominative case, meaning "Adelindis daughter Gotfrid." We have changed this to Adelindis filia Gotefridi, which puts the patronymic in the correct genitive case. [Adelindis filia Gotefridi, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Originally submitted as Jaret of Coventry, the name was changed at kingdom to Jaret_Coventry, but no reason was given for dropping the preposition. The name form given + of + locative is a valid English name form. We have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Jaret of Coventry, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-A]

As documented, this name contained two given names and no byname. Such a name is not registerable via RfS III.2.a "Personal names - a personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname." Boke suggested that this might be a given name and an unmarked metronymic. Her article "French Names from Paris 1421, 1423, and 1438" shows what appear to be several unmarked metronymics, including Heloys, Kathelin, and Magdelene. This shows a pattern of unmarked metronymics in French during the 15th C, making this name registerable. [Amelot Lisette, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Liadan inghean Aodhan, Gaelic grammar requires the patronymic be in the genitive form. We have changed the name to Liadan inghean Aodhain to correct the grammar. [Liadan inghean Aodhain, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

In addition, the patronymic is a standard modern spelling, not a period spelling. The Gaelic patronymic was the form shown in Black, The Surnames of Scotland; unless he states otherwise, these are modern forms. In some cases, the modern Gaelic form is consistent with earlier forms. In this case, though, the closest Gaelic form is the Early Modern Gaelic (1200-1700) mac Domhnaill, which is dated to 1529 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Names in Irish Annals". [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as Geneviève de Barbarel, Morlet Dictionaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille says that Barbarel is a diminutive of barbier, "barber", while Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames indicate it is a matronymic based on the name Barbara. There is no evidence to suggest it is a locative that should appear with the preposition de. Therefore we have dropped the preposition de. [Geneviève Barberel, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name combines a feminine given name with a Gaelic masculine patronymic byname. Gaelic patronymic bynames are literal; the particle mac means "son" and is used only with masculine given names. The particle inghean or ingen means "daughter" and is used with feminine names. An appropriate feminine form of the byname is inghean an Gabhann. Although conceptually the change of particle from mac to inghean is minor, it significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name, which are the hallmarks of a major change. As the submitter will not accept major changes, this name must be returned. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

We note that the patronymic Gille Crist is a pre-1200 form; lenition is not spelled out with the letter G during this period. [Muriel ingen Gille Crist, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Uilliam Mear mac Fhaoláin, a name starting with the letter F does not lenite when used in a masculine patronymic. We have, therefore, dropped the lenition, leaving Uilliam Mear mac Faoláin. [Uilliam Mear mac Faoláin, LoAR 08/2004, Middle-A]

Many commenters noted that Gilbert was documented as a given name, but de Gilbert was formed like a placename. Dauzat Dictionnaire étmologique des nomes et prénoms de France, s.n. De-, notes "I, préoisutuib (Nord et Midi) indiquant: l'origine; la relation ou l'appartenance; la filiation". Loosely translation this says, "De-, preposition indicating origin, the relation of an appurtenance, filial relationship." Dauzat gives several names following this pattern, including Defleur, Degeorges, and Deguillaume. Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Surnames from Paris 1421, 1423, & 1438" also contains examples of this formation, including de Fleur and de Omer. Therefore, de Gilbert follows a period French pattern for forming patronymics. [Tristan de Gilbert, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

In addition, Early Modern Gaelic grammar requires feminine patronymics starting with the letter F lenite. We have changed tthe name to Áine inghean Fhlaithimhin to reflect these requirements. [Áine inghean Fhlaithimhin, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Anastasiia Ivanova Petrshalov, Russian grammer requires that the second patronymic be feminized to match the gender of the given name. We have, therefore, changed the name to Anastasiia Ivanova Petroshalova. [Anastasiia Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Originally submitted as Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, the name was changed at kingdom to Svatava Ivanova Petreshalov. Because this is a feminine name, both patronymics need to be in the feminine form, as they are in the originally submitted form. We have, therefore, changed the name back to this form. [Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Ailis inghean Mhairghread, Gaelic grammar requires the metronymic be in the genitive case. Rowel provides two possible genetive forms Mairghrege and Mairgreicce and notes that the former is more likely based on Early Modern Irish Gaelic spelling rules. We have, therefore, changed the name to Ailis inghean Mhairghrege to comply with Gaelic grammer. [Ailis inghean Mhairghrege, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Listed on the LoI as Delion le fils de feu Colinet, the forms showed Delion fils de feu Colinet. The College found some later examples of this name form without the article, therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Delion fils de feu Colinet, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name consists of either two given names and a marked patronymic; or of a given name, an unmarked patronymic and a marked patronymic. No documentation was submitted and none found for either practice in period Scotland. We would drop the name Tosh, making the name just a given name and a marked patronymic, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Samuel Tosh McTier, LoAR 07/2004, Ealdormere-R]

Listed on the LoI as Bartholomew of Baskin, the forms showed Bartholomew_Baskin. The submitted documentation also shows the dated forms of this name without a preposition; this is not surprising, since the byname is derived from an unmarked patronymic. We have dropped the preposition and changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Bartholomew Baskin, LoAR 07/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Cano MagFhionnghail, we have changed it to Cano mag_Fhionnghail. By precedent "In period, Mac was not connected to the patronym in Gaelic. We have added a space to follow documented period examples. [Gavine Mac Cormaic, 12/2003 LoAR, A-Trimaris] [Cano mag Fhionnghail, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

This name mixes Middle Irish Gaelic given name with an Early Modern Irish byname; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Cano mag Fhionnghail, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Cairistiona inghean Choinnaig, the patronymic was a hypothetical genitive form of Cainneach. The Annals of the Four Masters (B), entry M1098.24 lists Mac Giolla Choinnigh I Urdhain; we have changed the name to Cairistiona inghean Choinnigh to match this documented Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. [Cairistiona inghean Choinnigh, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

CHANGE -- Major & minor

...but the submitter will not accept major changes such as changing the language of a name element. [Ay{s,}e al-Zahra', LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

No documentation was provided and none found for multiple inherited surnames in Scots in period. Barring such documentation, double inherited surnames in Scots are not registerable. Names of the form "given+surname+of locative" are common in the 16th C. As Leslie is originally a locative byname, we would change this name to Robert MacAlister of Leslie. However, the submitter will not accept major changes such as reordering the name phrases. We note that Robert Leslie and Robert MacAlister are both registerable forms of this name. [Robert Leslie MacAlister, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-R]

The given name Emma is documented as a French name. Mixing French and German in a single name is a step from period practice. Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch p.56, shows Hemma Tochter des Rùdolfus. We would change the given name to this form, but changing the language of a name is a major change which the submitter will not allow. [Emma Rudolfstochter, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

This name is two steps from period practice...Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Travell, lists a Ralph Tauel in 1185. We have changed the name to Ælfgar Trauel, but this would require dropping a name element (the article), and the submitter will not accept major changes. [Ælfgar the Traveler, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the name Arian in use in Wales in period, or in use as a name in cultures that had significant contact with Wales. The submitter asserted that Arian was a variant of the saint's name Arianell, but the submitted documentation only showed Arian- as a protheme in Welsh names. Documentation was presented for the name Arian as an Alexandrian martyr, but no documentation was found showing that the cult of this martyr was known in Wales or in cultures with significant contact with Wales. We would have changed the name to Arianell to match the documentation, but this significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name. The submitter will not accept major changes. [Arian ferch Dafydd Mawr, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

We note that the names Sunniva Stagg of Stowe or Ottilia Staff [sic] of Stowe would both be registerable, although one step from period practice for mixing Swedish and English. However, making these changes would be a major change, and the submitter will only accept minor changes. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

[Octofoil Herald] In order to be registerable as a heraldic title, the name of a heraldic charge must be found in period. Unfortunately, this is not the case for octofoil. The earliest date that the OED has for this term is 1844.

Although a foil of eight leaves is a period charge, the best evidence we have is that it was called a double quatrefoil in period. Leigh, The accedens of armory, in 1562 says of this charge "the double Caterfoyle ... He beareth the quaterfoyle double ... because he is the viij from the heire", while Guillim, A display of heraldrie, 1610, calls it "the Double Cater-foile." We would change the title to match this documentation, but the submitter will only accept minor changes. [Artemisia, Kingdom of, LoAR 10/2004, Artemisia-R]

This name uses a feminine given name with a masculine Gaelic patronymic. In Gaelic, the patronymic particle must match the gender of the given name. We would change the particle to inghean, but the submitter will not accept major changes. While conceptually the change from mac "son of" to inghean "daughter of" is minor, it significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name, which is the hallmark of a major change. [Sarah MacDhai, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-R]

The submitter argued that the byname was plausible as an unmarked patronymic contemporary with the given name, which Withycombe dated to 1199 and 1346. However, none of the dated forms of the patronymic from her period retained the "Æ", meaning that Ælfwine must be an Old English form. Name phrases must be consistent with the grammar and practice of a single language/culture. There is no evidence that unmarked patronymics were used in Old English. As the submitter will not accept changes, we can neither add the patronymic marker to the byname, nor can we change it to an appropriate Middle English unmarked patronymic. [Constancia Ælfwine, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

Listed on the LoI as Iain McWalter, the name was changed at kingdom from Iain MacBhaltair. This changed the language of the byname from Gaelic to English, a major change which the form indicated the submitter would not accept. We have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Iain MacBhaltair, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

Conflict with the city of Saint Augustine, Florida. This place is the first European settlement in the New World, and its longest continually occupied European settlement. This place is instantly recognizable by most people in the United States. We would drop the Saint and register this name as Augustine College, but the group will not accept major changes. [St Augustine, College of, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-R]

No documentation was provided and none found for the name or name element Kiho-. We would have dropped this element, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Kashiwadebe no Hikojirõ Kihõ, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-R]

However, as the submitter will not accept major changes, we cannot drop the first given name. [Elizabeth Ciarnait Ravenscroft, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-R]

The locative byname phrase na Skey combines Gaelic and English in the same name phrase. This is disallowed by RfS III.1.a, which says "Each [name] phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language." We would changed the Gaelic na to the English of, but changing the language of a name element is a major change which the submitter disallows. [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

We would change the name to Deredere de Manesfeld in order to register it, but this would change the language of the given name. This is a major change, which the submitter will not allow. [Deirdre de Manesfeld, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Hrafn-Adísa Úlfsdóttir would be an attested way to use this byname; however, changing to this form would be a major change, which the submitter will not allow. [Adísa hrafn Úlfsdóttir, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

Returned for presumption against the Arthurian hero, Tristram of Cornwall. Several of the commenters remarked that this name was a claim to be the legendary hero, violating RfS VI.3, "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered." Though this submission is clear of conflict with the Arthurian hero by addition of the element Irenfest, and we know of no evidence that the Arthurian hero Tristram was ever called Irenfest, Tristram was a knight of the Round Table and the descriptive byname Irenfest 'iron fist' is one that would be appropriate for this knight. Therefore, this name, as a whole, is overly allusive of the Arthurian hero and, therefore, presumptuous. Over alluding to a protected person in a name has long been cause for return. We would drop the locative byname, leaving Trystrem Irenfest, but the submitter would not accept major changes. [Trystrem Irenfest de Cornwale, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-R]

This name combines a feminine given name with a Gaelic masculine patronymic byname. Gaelic patronymic bynames are literal; the particle mac means "son" and is used only with masculine given names. The particle inghean or ingen means "daughter" and is used with feminine names. An appropriate feminine form of the byname is inghean an Gabhann. Although conceptually the change of particle from mac to inghean is minor, it significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name, which are the hallmarks of a major change. As the submitter will not accept major changes, this name must be returned. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

No documentation was submitted and none found of a pattern of usage for the deuterotheme -lautern. Although the documentation included the period placename Kaiserslautern, this was the sole example of this usage located so far. This does not support a pattern, nor does it support givenname+lautern as a byname or placename pattern. We would change the byname to von Lautern, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Wilhelm Ludwig von Rabeslautern, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The submitter requested authenticity for 13th C England and accepted minor changes. While Volker is a header form in Reaney and Wilson, s.n. Fulcher, none of the dated forms in this work or in Bardsley show the leading V. The submitted documentation shows the form Volker as a German name. The mixture of English and German is registerable but one step from period practice. As the submitter will not accept major changes, and changing this name to any of the documented Ful- forms is a major change, we are unable to fulfill his request for authenticity. [Danyel Volker, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

Tir-y-Cwningen is a post-period form of this name. The submitted documentation shows several examples of Tir-y- names, but the earliest of them dates to 1666. The documentation dates the form Tireconynger to 1472. To change the locative to this form would be a major change which the submitter will not accept. Therefore, the name must be returned. [Dobin Tir-y-Cwningen, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-R]

This name consists of either two given names and a marked patronymic; or of a given name, an unmarked patronymic and a marked patronymic. No documentation was submitted and none found for either practice in period Scotland. We would drop the name Tosh, making the name just a given name and a marked patronymic, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Samuel Tosh McTier, LoAR 07/2004, Ealdormere-R]

The submitter requested authenticity for Irish language/culture. Ioan Ó Muirgheasa is a reasonable Irish name; the patronymic is found in the Annals of the Four Masters in the entry for 856 and 1516 and is a reasonable Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. We would drop the locative to fulfill the submitter's request, but the submitter will only accept minor changes. [Ioan Ó Muirgheasa of Strikkenwoode, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

As documented, this name uses three given names. At the end of period, double given names are occasionally found in England, but no evidence was provided nor any found for triple given names. An alternative interpretation is that the name consists of two given names, an unmarked matronymic and an inherited surname. Because Leah is not found in use in English names until the 17th C, this cannot be an inherited surname. Unfortunately, by the time double given names are found in England, literal matronymics had fallen out of use. Dropping one of the given names would resolve both of these issues, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Rebekah Anna Leah Wynterbourne, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

This name uses a double given name; one of the names is Czech and the other Hungarian. No documentation was provided and none found or use of double given names in either of these cultures. Without such evidence, a Czech or Hungarian name using two given names is not registerable. We would drop one of the given names in order to register this name, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Katrina Petronÿa von Rosenberg, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

No evidence was submitted and none found that Kellerwald a period placename or that it was constructed according to period German place name or forest name patterns...The occupational byname Keller is well-attested; Brechenmacher dates it to 1255 and 1280. We would drop the preposition von and the deuterotheme -wald leaving the occupational surname, but the submitter will not accept changes. [Philipp von Kellerwald, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Listed on the LoI as Calum O'Morain, the forms shows something between Calum Ó Moráin and Calum O'Moráin. We believe that the submitter intended to submit the former spelling, which is the Gaelic form of the name. The latter form mixes the Anglicized Gaelic particle O' with the Gaelic patronym Morain, names that mix two languages in a single name phrase are not registerable. We have, therefore, registered the name in the all Gaelic form. [Calum Ó Moráin, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

CHINESE

This submission uses diacritical marks when transliterating Chinese characters; this practice was declared unregisterable in June, 2003:

Submitted as Lán Ying, we have removed the accent from the byname. Pinyin and Wade-Giles are the two main systems for transliterating Chinese names using the Roman alphabet. Golden Pillar provided information regarding the accents and diacritical marks used in these transliteration systems:
First, Yin strongly recommends that Pelican and Laurel not register accent marks, or most other diacritical marks, with Chinese names. In Pinyin, and in many Wade-Giles, Romanizations, these marks are, in some sense, similar to the marks in deFelice, providing pronunciation information without being part of the actual characters in the name. With a few exceptions in Wade-Giles, the marks are one of two modern methods for conveying pronunciation tones, and the other method (numbers at the end of each syllable) is much more common. Further, both numbers and marks are most frequently omitted when Romanizing Chinese characters for Western readers from the general public. Please note that, if accent and diacritical marks are registered in Romanized Chinese names, then the much more common number-at-end-of-syllable should be likewise registerable. (By the way, if the number convention is registerable, this name would more frequently be Romanized as Lan2 Ying1 than as Lán Ying).
Given this information, we will omit diacritical marks and tonal indicators (numbers at the end of each syllable) when registering Chinese names. We have changed Lán to Lan in this name to remove the accent, which is used as a pronunciation indicator.

As the submitter will allow no changes, we cannot remove the diacritical marks from her name. [Xún Mèi L{iu}, LoAR 08/2004, Middle-R]

COMPATIBLE (SCA Compatible)

Submitted as Tegen of Liskeard, the submitter argued that this was a spelling variant of Tegan. We note that Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany, published in 1993, lists the name Tegan. However, in the article, "Concerning the Name Tegan", written in 1998, she notes that "Tegan is found as an error for Tegau, the name of a female character appearing in Arthurian literature," so it is likely that the first citation reflects this error rather than a true documented form. The name Tegan has been registered over 40 times, including two registrations in 2004. Therefore Tegan is SCA-compatible. However, no documentation was submitted showing that Tegen is a reasonable variant of Tegan. Therefore, we have changed this name to Tegan of Liskeard. [Tegan of Liskeard, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

[Iron Griffin Legion.] This does not follow a pattern found in period Order names. While there Project Ordenamen article presents the interpretation [color][item] as a pattern for period Order names, there are alternative interpretations. One is [color used in heraldry][heraldic charge]. We believe this better describes the Order names of this pattern.. The colors found in period order names, yellow, blue, green, white, and gold are all heraldic tinctures. The color/metal silver, which is SCA-compatible, also follows this pattern. Although iron is found as a color in the gray area, it is not found as a heraldic tincture. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses the SCA compatible byname the Traveler. [Ælfgar the Traveler, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

Ian is an SCA compatible Scots form of this name. Use of an SCA-compatible name is one step beyond period practice. [Ian Morteyne, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

The name Cerridwen is SCA compatible. [Cerridwen of Conwy, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Tara of Dragonwood, this name is two steps from period practice...Second, it uses a name constructed as Dragon+[topographic]. Precedent states about such names

[Dragonhurst] No evidence was supplied that Dragon- was a period element in placenames. Drakehurst would be significantly more authentic. Nevertheless, a cursory search found over 30 SCA names with Dragon-"X" as locatives. Therefore Dragonhurst is SCA compatible. [Anne of Dragonhurst, 02/00, A-Middle]

[Tara of Dragonswood, LoAR 12/2004, Ansteorra-A]

We note that this name uses the modern Gaelic Iain, an SCA-compatible name, which is one step from period practice. [Iain MacBhaltair, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

...it uses an SCA compatible name, Deirdre. While the Scots form of this name, Deredere is documented in the 12th C, the spelling Deirdre appears to be modern. [Deirdre de Manesfeld, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Fiona is an SCA-compatible name. [Fiona inghean uí Mheadhra, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

...the given name, Aislinn is SCA-compatible. [Ascelina de Tanet, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Ian is an SCA-compatible name; all available evidence is that it is a post-period spelling. [Ioan Ó Muirgheasa of Strikkenwoode, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Ian Cinnsealach, this name is two steps from period practice: it uses an SCA compatible name, and combines an Anglicized given name with a Gaelic byname. Since the submitter will accept major changes, we have changed the name to Iain Cinnsealach, Iain, itself an SCA compatible name, is a Gaelic form of Ian. This is the smallest possible change which will make the name registerable. [Iain Cinnsealach, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

CONFLICT

Nebuly raises the issue that Nikolai Kowal is a Latin documentary form of the registered name Kouac Myclos. However, the standard for name conflict against registered names is not whether two names are documentary variants of each other in different languages but rather, "Two name phrases are considered significantly different if they differ significantly in sound and appearance." The exception is diminutives of the same name, which do conflict. The RfS explicitly address Latin versus. vernacular forms, V.I.ii says: "Cum Barba is significantly different from Beard and Witheberd 'with the beard', but Beard is equivalent to Witheberd." In this case, although the two names have the same meaning, they are written in different languages, and are significantly different in sound and appearance. Therefore, they are not in conflict. [Nikolai Kowal, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

This name does not conflict with Sáerlaith Rúad, registered August 1995. R&uacte;ad is a descriptive byname meaning 'red', while ingen Rúadáin is a patronymic meaning 'son [sic] of Ruadan'. Thus the two bynames differ significantly in sound, appearance, and type. [Sáerlaith ingen Rúadáin, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

This name is not in conflict with the Scottish philosopher, Dugald Stewart, who is not important enough to protect. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature says of Stewart, "[his] exposition and criticism are devoted to those aspects of philosophical controversy which were prominent in his own day, and they have thus lost interest for a later generation. Nor did he show any such profundity of thought, or even distinction of style, as might have saved his work from comparative neglect." Although he was influential in his day, his day was in the late 18th/early 19th C, not the medival period, nor do his works appears to still provide direct influence for today's men of letters (although the works of some of Stewart's students are still influential.) [Dougal Stewart, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name is not a conflict with Connor Mac Loghan, registered September 1992. The names are significantly different in appearance, and the name Mac Lochlainn has a ch+l or k+l sound missing from Mac Loghan. [Conchobar mac Lochlainn, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

[Clann Lochlainn Mor.] This is presumptous of the real-world Clann Lochlainn. While the descriptive element Mor clears the two names of conflict, the founder of the real-world Clann Lochlainn is, according to the submitter's documentation, Lochlainn Mor. Therefore, this claim is identical to the one of the real-world clan. If the submitter wishes to remove the presumption, we suggest choosing a different descriptive byname. Clann Lochlain Dubh, for example, would not be presumptous. [Santin Westmerland of Ravenstonedale, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-R]

The question was raised whether this name conflicts with the name of the character actress Isabella Rossellini of the Earthsea miniseries and Death Becomes Her fame. The commenters were split on whether she was important enough to protect. However, enough commenters (and participants at the Pelican meeting) either did not recognize the name, or had to think about who she was, that I cannot in good conscience declare her important enough to protect. [Isabella Rossini, LoAR 01/2005, Lochac-A]

Conflict with Magnus Olafsson, also known as Magnus Den Gode, King of Norway in from 1037-1047. Medieval and renaissance kings are always considered important enough to protect their names. [Magnus Olafsson, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

[Order of the Hafoc] This Order name is not in conflict with the registered Hawk Herald, registered May 1989. By precedent, the Old English havoc or hafoc does not conflict with its Middle and Elizabethan English counterparts:

[Wyll Hauk vs William of Havoc] The possibility of conflict with William of Havoc... depends on the fact that Middle English hauk derives from Old English hafoc hawk'. Nevertheless, Hauk and Havoc look and sound significantly different. They are also not really variant forms in a single language: hauk is best viewed in this context as a late Middle or early Modern English translation of the late Old English havoc, and we don't protect translations unless they preserve both the appearance and the sound. [The name was registered.] (Will Hauk, October 1995, p. 3).

[Tir Rígh, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Conflict with William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, who established the absolute temperature scale that bears the name Kelvin. The bynames Thomas and Thomson are both English patronymics meaning "son of Thomas." [William Thomas, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-R]

Aural conflict with Eric Thoralfsson, registered October 1994. Most people would pronounce these names identically. [Eirikr Þorolfsson, LoAR 01/2005, Lochac-R]

[Award of the Cygnus] Aural conflict with Order of the Cygnet registered to Meridies in September 1995. The only difference in sound is the ending sound in an unstressed syllable. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

[Order of the Aquila] Aural conflict with Aquilon, Shire of, registered April 1991. The only difference is the final sound. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

Submitted as Aonghus Mercator, this name is an aural conflict with Aonghus Macadair, registered May 1994. [Aonghus Marchand, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This does not conflict with William the True, registered July 1999. The bynames have different meanings, the names a significantly different in appearance, and there is a distinct difference between the the sound of a leading "d" and a leading "tr." [Willim Du, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

This name does not conflict with Aine Fhionn, registered July, 2003. In this case Fhionn is a descriptive byname and ingen Fhinn is a patronymic, so the bynames have different meanings. The introduction of the patronymic particle also means they differ significantly in sound and appearance. [Aine ingen Fhinn, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

[Harpers Keep] Conflict with Harper Hall, a central location in the popular Pern novels by Anne McCaffrey. This place appears as the name of one of the novels, Harper Hall of Pern, and as the name of a collection, The Harper Hall Trilogy. The Admin Handbook says "Locations in period or modern literary works of all genres may be considered major if they play a significant role in the action of the work in which they appear or are peculiarly associated with a major character in that work. Locations that appear in more than one part of a series may be considered significant even if they do not play a critical role in any single volume or episode." As Hall and Keep are designators, they are transparent for purposes of conflict. [Allan Blackharp, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-R]

Conflict with Katerina de Montfort, registered June 1986. Katheryne and Katerina are variant spellings of the same name. RfS V.1 says "Variant spellings of the same word or name, no matter how radical, are not considered significantly different unless there is also a significant difference in pronunciation." [Katheryne de Montfort, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-R]

Conflict with the name Catherine de la Rose, registered April 1987. The names are too similar in sound and appearance. [Caterina la Rossa, LoAR 12/2004, Middle-R]

[Order of the Golden Palm] Conflict with the household name Household of the Golden Palm, registered September 1996. The only difference is the designators; designators are transparent for conflict purposes. [Fontaine dans Sable, Barony of, LoAR 12/2004, Outlands-R]

Conflict with the registered name Catriona Roche, registered in May 1992. Cáit is a diminutive of Caitriona, and RfS V.1.a.i says "irrespective of differences in sound and appearance, a given name is not significantly different from any of its diminutives when they are used as given names." [Cáit Roche, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

From Pelican: Thoughts on Beyond the Encyclodedia

The College and I are working our way through what makes some historical people important enough to protect under the "Beyond the Encyclopedia" statement issued in August 2003. In the past few months, I have found myself using these guidelines when trying to decide whether the name of a historical figure is important or famous enough to protect. They are not an inclusive set, nor are they a formal part of the rules. However, these are the questions I ask myself when doing case-by-case conflict and presumption considerations:

• Was the person a sovereign ruler? Sovereigns of nations and empires (Kings, Queens, Khans) are always important enough to protect.
• Do a significant number of Society folks (in this case represented by the internal and external commenters) recognize the name without having to look it up in an encyclopedia? Since a large purpose of this rule is to prevent participants from being "pulled out of the game" by either a misappropriated medieval name or a name with heavy modern historical associations, the recognizability of the name is an extremely important factor. For example, although the sobriquet Jack the Ripper is a well known name, his main contribution to today's society was the notoriety he gained through his crimes. We would probably return the name Jack Ripper for conflict against the historical figure, not because the historical figure is important, but because the name is extremely familiar with specific associations to a large portion of SCA participants.
• Did the person flourish within the places and times on which our Society concentrates? While this is not an automatic key for protection, it is a strong factor in favor of protection. One of the taboos of our Society is that we don't recreate actual historical figures such as you might find as the main characters in a Renfaire. Therefore, it makes sense that we should be more sensitive to important medieval people. There is also the idea that the longer someone is remembered and explored, the more likely it is that they were important.
• If the person flourished outside the places and times on which the Society concentrates, is the impact of their work/life still influential in modern society or uniquely and sharply shape the course of world history, science, or the arts?
• How ordinary is the name? If the standard encyclopedia lists several individuals with a particular name, and if the name is one that would be common in period, then it is less likely to pull hearers out of the medieval frame of mind, and is also less likely to be firmly associated with a single individual unless that individual is truly important.
• What did the commenters say about the name? Comments from submitters about recognizability, knowledge of the historical person and their importance or lack thereof is a useful and necessary gauge for deciding whether someone is important enough to protect. I strongly encourage submissions heralds and commenters to check the Encyclopedia Britannica for possible conflicts and discuss them using the guidelines above.

[CL 11/2004]

This is not a conflict with John Spencer, the first Earl Spencer. Only one member of the College noted the potential conflict, John Spencer is not contemporary with the SCA period, and he does not have his own article in the Encyclopedia Britannica. Therefore, he is not important enough to protect. [Jack de Spencer, LoAR 11/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name was returned under older rules for conflict with William Forster, who was sponsor of the Education Act in England in 1870, and who has his own entry in the Encyclopedia Britannica. However, under the rules now in place, he is no longer important enough to protect. [William Forester, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Conflict with the registered name Eric Wolfson. The given names are identical in sound. According to both Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, and Morlet, Dictionnaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille, the byname Woulfe is originally a sobriquet, but according to Bardsley, A Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, it is an unmarked patronymic formed from the given name Wolf or Ulf. Wolfson, according to Bardsley, s.n. Wolfson, is also a patronymic meaning son of Wolf or Ulf. Because the bynames are both patronymics meaning "son of Wolf", they conflict. [Arik Woulfe, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-R]

This is a resubmission of a name that was submitted in February, 1991 as Robert of Burns House. The reason for return still applies:

Conflict with Robert Burns, born Robert Burness, a variant of Burnhouse. Mind you, the fact that nearly every commenter immediately thought of Robert Burns may have been enough to have returned this anyway.

[Robert of Burnhouse, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-R]

Conflict with Katherin verch Rhys, registered October 2003. Katherin and Catlin are variants of the same name, and when pronounced properly differ by only a single sound in the middle of the name. [Catrin ferch Rhys, LoAR 11/2004, Ansteorra-R]

Conflict with Sir William Johnson, who was probably the most important English player in the relations between the British and the Six Nations during and after the Anglo-French Wars in colonial America. Various scholarly articles about him note his importance to American history. Statements like "Not only did Johnson come to know and to lead the Iroquois of his day, he was a leading source of information for scientists and writers of his time when they wrote on America." (Sir William Johnson: Interpreter of the Iroquois, by Milton W. Hamilton; William Johnson Ethnohistory © 1963 The American Society for Ethnohistory ) and "Students of the period have come to recognize that Johnson's influence on the destinies of the English speaking peoples in North America, in the middle of the eighteenth century, was greater than that of any other person." Johnson of the Mohawks: A Biography of Sir William Johnson, Irish Immigrant, Mohawk War Chief, American Soldier, Empire Builder, Review author[s]: C. E. Carter The American Historical Review © 1931 are also persuasive. Although the name is a common name, and does not have a high recognizablity factor among the general population, William Johnson was a key figure in American history and worthy of protection. [William Johnson, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

Aural conflict with James O'Neill, registered in December 1980. Although different in appearance, the names James and Seamus are nearly identical in sound. [Seamus O Neill, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

This does not conflict with Aileann inghean Chathail. Ó Corrain and Maguire give the pronunciation of Aileann as "al'an " and the pronunciation of Failenn as "f{i-}-l'an". The addition of the consonant sound at the beginning of the name and the difference in the first vowel sound is enough to prevent conflict. [Faílenn ingen Chathail, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

This name is not a conflict with Lake Windermere, which is the largest lake in England. Although Lake Windermere is notable for its size, and is well known in England as a resort area and for the many literary figures who made their homes in villages nearby (the Lakeland poets, Beatrix Potter), it does not appear to have played any great historical role nor have a large recognition factor amongst SCA participants. Therefore, it is not important enough to protect. [Wynandremer, Shire of, LoAR 10/2004, Northshield-A]

[Order of William Marshal] The kingdom stated that the Order of William would be acceptable if the Order of William Marshal was not acceptable. This name would have the benefit of the doubt that it follows the two possible examples of Orders named after regular people. However, in this form the name conflict with the Military Order of William, the highest award for bravery in the Netherlands. The phrase Military Order in this Order name is the designator and is, therefore, transparent for purposes of conflict. [Drachenwald, Kingdom of, LoAR 10/2004, Drachenwald-R]

Aural conflict with Anna de Byxe. Byxe is pronounced "Beks", making the two names too close in sound. [Ana Bek, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

Conflict with the registered name Meadhbh ni Loingsigh, registered August 1995. Meadhbh is an Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of Medb and both names have the same pronunciation. According to the Cover Letter of April 2004, the particle inghean or ingen conflicts with the particle ni, because the pronunciation is nearly identical. [Medb ingen Loingsigh, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

Conflict with the city of Saint Augustine, Florida. This place is the first European settlement in the New World, and its longest continually occupied European settlement. This place is instantly recognizable by most people in the United States. We would drop the Saint and register this name as Augustine College, but the group will not accept major changes. [St Augustine, College of, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-R]

This name does not conflict with Jamie Oliver, the Naked Chef. Although he holds a certain current celebrity, particularly among fans of the Food Network, few commenters even recognized the name. He is not important enough for his name to be protected. [James Oleveir, LoAR 10/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name is clear of the registered name Mari Alexander. By precedent, set in 7/00, the names Alexander and Alasdair do not conflict. Therefore, patronymics formed from these names do not conflict either. [Mari MacQuhollastar, LoAR 09/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name is not a claim to be the daughter of Morgan ap Rhys ap Bran under RfS VI.3 "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered." By our rules, Morgan ap Rhys and Morgan ap Rhys ap Bran are clear of conflict; this means they can denote two different people. Since the name Morgan ap Rhys is not registered, claiming to be his daughter is not presumptuous. [Aluara verch Morgan ap Rhys, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

Metron Ariston called a conflict against Commodore Richard Dale, who maintained the blockade of Tripoli celebrated in the Marine Hymn. He served with John Paul Jones on the Bonhomme Richard and no fewer than five ships have been named after him by the U. S. Navy. He has his own entry in the Encylopedia Britannica and is found in some general biographical sources. Under the old rules, this would be a conflict. However, under the current rules, mundane conflict must be decided on a case-by-case basis.

In February 2004, Laurel accepted the name John de Duglas with this statement "However, lacking evidence that John Douglas, eighth Marquis of Queensberry, is generally recognizable on his own to members of the SCA, he is not important enough to protect." This establishes recognizability as an important factor when deciding mundane conflict. While the name Richard Dale is recognizable for those interested in American Naval history, his name does not have the same recognizability of such military figures such as John Paul Jones or George Cornwallis.

Another factor in deciding mundane conflict is how important was the individual. A brief biography of Richard Dale on www.history.navy.mil mentions that he served with distinction as a junior officer and was wounded seriously three times, that he was in charge of the blockade of Tripoli (of "from the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli" fame), came home and retired. It also mentions that he was well respected by his collegues on both sides of the Atlantic. These things may make a hero, but it is unclear whether they make him important enough to protect. He does not have his own header in several works where you would expect this, especially of a hero of the American Revolutionary War. These works include the World Book Encyclopedia, The American Revolution, 1775-1783 Encyclopedia (a 2 volume set approximately 2,000 pages in length), and The World Almanac of the American Revolution. Taking this in combination with his somewhat low name recognizability, he is not important enough to protect from conflict. [Richard Dale, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

This names does not conflict with Líadaine nic Áodháin. By precedent in April 2004, the particle nic and inghean do not conflict because they are different in sound and appearance, and because they express a different relationship. Therefore, these names do not conflict. [Liadan inghean Aodhain, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

This name alludes strongly enough to the figure of history and romance, Alexander the Great, to constitute infringement. Such names were ruled unregisterable in October 1991. The two names do not conflict. The Great is a descriptive byname while of Greatness is a locative byname, and the names are significantly different in sound and appearance. However, every commentor and every person at the decision meeting remarked on the connection, and most found it obtrusive or presumptuous. [Alexander of Greatness, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as James of York, this name is in conflict with James II of England, who was Duke of York. [James Nelson of York, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This does not conflict with Christine de Waughe; the bynames are significantly different in sound and appearance. [Cristiane Woayde, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

[Chateau Fleur Delatour] We would drop one of the elements, but either resulting name has problems. Chateau Fleur is an aural conflict with Order of the Flower, while Chateur [sic] de la Tour is an aural conflict with Canton of the Towers. [Fu Ching Lan, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-R]

Conflict with Christian Wulf, registered August 1999. The names are variants of each other, identical in sound and nearly identical in appearance. [Christian Woolfe, LoAR 09/2004, East-R]

Conflict with the registered name Richard del Hauke, registered November, 1995. The names are too close in sound and appearance. [Richard le Hauke, LoAR 09/2004, East-R]

Conflict with Bob the Builder, the popular children's character and franchise. The commenters universally recognized the reference. RfS V.1.a.i says "Irrespective of differences in sound and appearance, a given name is not significantly different from any of its diminutives when they are used as given names;" so the given name Robert conflicts with its diminutive Bob. [Robert the Builder, LoAR 09/2004, East-R]

[Mede Herawde] Conflict with Mead Guard, registered 12/87. Mede and Mead are identical in sound and nearly identical in appearance. Designators, such as Guard or Herawde are transparent for purposes of conflict. [Northshield, Kingdom of, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-R]

Metron Ariston notes there is an early 20th C English novelist named Mary Webb:

Though associated primarily with Shropshire, she received fairly wide recognition in the early twentieth century and even has a society devoted to her works (à la the Austenites). She has articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica (see secure.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=78391) and other similar encyclopedic works.

Laurel notes that because this novelist does not deal with our area or time of study, and because she is not widely recognized, she is not significant enough to protect. [Mary Webb, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-A]

This name does not conflict with Adrian Dragon, registered in August 1999. RfS V.1.a.ii says "Two names are significantly different if they look and sound significantly different." Although "dragon" and "drake" share a common etymology, they are not variants of the same name, and they are significantly different in sound and appearance. [Adrian Drake, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Aural conflict with Johannes vom Turm, registered in June 1997. When pronounced properly, the byname Thun sounds like "tune" -- as in "a song". Furthermore, several commenters noted that the names looked very similar. Several other potential aural conflicts were called against this name. However, it does not conflict with John of Thame, John Thorn or John Donne; there is enough difference in both sound and appearance to make these clear. Nor does this conflict with the historical friend and patron of Mozart, Johannes Thun , who is not important enough to protect. [Johannes von Thun, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-R]

This is not a conflict with the British politician Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, 1704-1775.He is post-period, the name was not recognizable to most of the commenting members of the College of Arms, and the Encylopedia Britannica notes he is "notable chiefly for the success with which he exploited public office for private gain." He is not important enough to protect. [Henry Fox, LoAR 07/2004, Lochac-A]

[Clann Maccuswael] Conflict with the modern day Clan Maxwell. Maccusweal is a proposed spelling variant of Maxwell and the two are nearly identical in sound. [Donecan de Maccuswel, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-R]

[The Honorable League of York] Conflict with the House of York. The elements The Honorable League and House of are designators and therefore transparent for purposes of conflict. [Alan Youngforest, 07/2004, Artemisia-R]

We note that, under the current rules, the previously submitted Order of the Mirror no longer conflicts with Order of the Polished Mirror. By RfS V.2.c "The addition of one or more modifiers to an unmodified noun is a significant change, so Black Lion Herald does not conflict with Lyon King of Arms." [[One Thousand Eyes, Barony of, LoAR 07/2004, Artemisia-R]

[House de Lacy] Conflict with the real-world Lacy family. The badge, [Tinctureless] A Lacy knot, registered as important non-SCA arms, is the badge of the Lacys'. Nine of the eighteen registrations of the name de Lacy have a device or badge using this charge. This suggests that, within the SCA, the mundane family name is closely enough associated with the registered charge that the name should also be protected. [Bertrand de Lacy, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Conflict with the registered name Sorcha inghean uí Mhaoláin. To be clear of conflict, two names must differ significantly in sound and appearance. While inghean and inghean uí differ in appearance, they differ by only one unstressed syllable in sound; therefore, identical given and patronymics that differ by only these particles conflict. [Sorcha inghean Mhaoláin, LoAR 07/2004, Atlantia-R]

Aural conflict with the registered name Thorbjorn Olafsson, registered December 1987. The given names are identical. In June 2001, the name Astrid Olafsdatter was ruled an aural conflict with Astrith Ulfsdottir. Therefore, Olafsson and Ulfsson are also an aural conflict. [Thórbjörn Úlfsson, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-R]

Aural conflict with Catherine Ravn, registered 4/76. Only the ending a sound makes the pronunciation of Catherine and Caitríona different, and the pronunciation of the bynames is the same as well. The articles of the do not count for name conflict. [Caitríona of the Raven, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-R]

Conflict with the registered name Gregor Gregors. RfS V.1.a.ii.a says, "Two bynames of relationship are significantly different if the natures of the relationships or the objects of the relationships are significantly different. Both names mean "son of Gregor," therefore they conflict. [Gregor MacGregor, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-R]

[House Silverthorn] Conflict with Silverthorn, Shire of. The only difference is in the designators, which are transparent for purposes of conflict. [Gregory Kystwright, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-R]

Conflict with the registered name Anne Marshal, registered August 1985. The only difference between the names is a doubling of the terminal "l" in the byname. [Anne Marshall, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-R]

The question was raised whether this name conflicted with the character actor Michael Constantine of Room 222 and My Big Fat Greek Wedding fame. The concensus at the Known World Heraldic Symposium road show was that this actor is not important enough to protect. [Michael Constantine, LoAR 06/2004, Northshield-A]

This name is an aural conflict with Duncan MacKinnon when both are pronounced properly. According to Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames, the pronunciation of MacFhionghuine, the Gaelic form of MacKinnon, "The pronunciation, as I heard it in Argyleshire, would be represented by Mac Cionuin. Ó Corrain and Maguire, Irish Names give the pronunciation of the Cion syllable in Cionaodh as "(k'un)." Curiously enough, Mac Cionnaodha is Gaelic version Black, Surnames of Scotland gives for MacKenna, of which MacKennie is a proposed spelling variant. Therefore, the two pronunciations differ only by a single sound--a soft consonent at the end of an unstressed syllable. This is too close for registration. [Duncan MacKennie, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The question was raised whether Glen Rathlin was too close to Isle of Rathlin; the latter is a placename in the territory owned by this group. The Administrative Handbook section III.A.9 says "No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context." Glen and Isle are different in sound, appearance, and meaning. This would be sufficient to clear conflict between two SCA branch names, and we see no reason why the same standard would not apply here. [Glen Rathlin, Shire of, LoAR 06/2004, Drachenwald-A]

CONSTRUCTED NAMES

Submitted as Ragnarr Ulfsaxi, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th-10th C Anglo-Danish or Danish. The second name has several problems. The submitter formed this name by combining the protheme ulf-, found in Old Norse given names, with the name Saxi. However, no documentation was provided and none found that combining Ulf- with a random Norse given name is a valid pattern for forming a Norse name. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

CZECH & BOHEMIA

Submitted as Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, Nebuly notes:

Although locative bynames formed using the preposition z do appear in period Polish, the construction is far more typical of Czech. Poles used the suffix -ski/-ska far more frequently...

[Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Coinneach Micha Moray, the element Micha has several problems. First, no documentation was submitted and none found that Micha is found in period. The website from which this name was documented is an index to a book, Jewish Surnames from Prague (15th - 18th Centuries) by Alexander Beider. While the book gives dates, the index does not; so, we don't know whether this name was found in the 15th C or in the 18th. Furthermore, and more important, no documentation was submitted and none found for substantial contact between Bohemia and Scotland in period. Barring such documentation, combining Bohemian with either Scots or Gaelic in the same name is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered this name as Coinneach Moray. In that form, the name is still one step from period practice, but it is registerable. [Coinneach Moray, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name uses a double given name; one of the names is Czech and the other Hungarian. No documentation was provided and none found or use of double given names in either of these cultures. Without such evidence, a Czech or Hungarian name using two given names is not registerable. We would drop one of the given names in order to register this name, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Katrina Petronÿa von Rosenberg, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

DOCUMENTATION

Submitted as Valentin Lieme, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th-15th C German and accepted minor changes. The form Lieme is undated; no evidence was given and none found that it is a period spelling or consistent with period spellings. Schwarz, Sudetendeutsche Familiennamen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, lists a Peter Lyme in 1544. We have changed the name to Valentin Lyme to make the name registerable and partially compy with his request for authenticity. [Valentin Lyme, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

The given name Adrienne was documented as an undated French name from Withycombe. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Unless Withycombe provides a date or period for a particular form, the form is generally modern. [Adriana Barclye of Dunotir, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

The documentation of the name was all in French; no translation was provided in the summarization. Translation of at least the summary of foreign language documentation is required on Letters of Intent. Had the College not provided such translations, we would have been forced to return this name for lack of adequate summarization of the documentation. [Sabine Lefevre d'Armagnac, LoAR 01/2005, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Róise MacCracken, no documentation was submitted and none found to support Róise as a form of the name Róis or Róisi. We have changed the name to Róisi MacCracken; the spelling Róisi is documented to 1585 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index to Names in Irish Annals." [Róisi MacCracken, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Tegen of Liskeard, the submitter argued that this was a spelling variant of Tegan. We note that Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany, published in 1993, lists the name Tegan. However, in the article, "Concerning the Name Tegan", written in 1998, she notes that "Tegan is found as an error for Tegau, the name of a female character appearing in Arthurian literature," so it is likely that the first citation reflects this error rather than a true documented form. The name Tegan has been registered over 40 times, including two registrations in 2004. Therefore Tegan is SCA-compatible. However, no documentation was submitted showing that Tegen is a reasonable variant of Tegan. Therefore, we have changed this name to Tegan of Liskeard. [Tegan of Liskeard, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found suggesting that a byname combining the words laga and hamarr follows patterns for constructing Old Norse bynames. Descriptive bynames in Old Norse that involve physical objects tend to be fairly straightforward descriptions of those objects; examples include vegghamarr 'wedge-hammer, mallet' and járnsaxa 'iron-knife'. No examples were given of concepts such as "law" being combined with tne names of everyday objects, such as "hammer" to form descriptive bynames in Old Norse. The name was submitted as a lingua anglica translation of an Old Norse byname; however, as no such byname exists or can be constructed, the translation is, likewise, unregisterable. The submitter indicated he wished a byname meaning "strong upholder of the law." In this case, we suggest Magnus lögmaðr; the submitter [sic] documentation shows lögmaðr as an Old Norse word meaning 'lawman.' [Magnus Lawhammer, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-R]

Submitted as Siegfried Waffenschiemdt, no documentation was submitted and none found that Schiemdt is a word at all. The modern word for "smith" in German is Schmiedt. We have changed the byname to Waffenschmiedt, the header form in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen. [Siegfried Waffenschmiedt, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Nikolaevna doch' Svetokhna, no documentation was submitted and none found for the patronymic preceeding the given name in Russian naming practices. We have changed the name to Svetokhna Nikolaevna doch' to follow documented Russian naming practices. [Svetokhna Nikolaevna doch', LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Listed on the LoI as Owlsherste, Shire of, the forms showed Owlsherst, Shire of. Mills, A Dictionary of English Place Names, show Tigelherst 1167 (s.n. Tilehurst), Saxingherste 1180 (s.n. Sissinghurst), and Schettokesherst 1239 (s.n. Shadoxhurst). Given this documentation, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Owlsherst, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Sterling is the submitter's legal middle name. Middle names are registerable as given names under the mundan [sic] name allowance if they are given names by type. The submitter has included documentation for Sterling as a 12th C English given name. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

[House Hydra] No documentation was submitted demontrating that Hydra is a reasonable inn sign name. Nor did the College supply any. The documentation consisted of a statement that the word Hydra is found in the 16th C in England and an assertation that the name follows inn name patterns. No examples of inn name patterns were given, nor was the definition of Hydra as found in the OED included in the summarization. Such lack of documentation/summarization has long since been reason for return, especially when the College does not supply such missing information in commentary. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Nuala inghean uí Chaoinleáin, Chaoinleáin is a modern form of this name. Barring examples of this spelling in period, it cannot be registered. [Nuala inghean uí Chaoindealbheáin [sic], LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the name Arian in use in Wales in period, or in use as a name in cultures that had significant contact with Wales. The submitter asserted that Arian was a variant of the saint's name Arianell, but the submitted documentation only showed Arian- as a protheme in Welsh names. Documentation was presented for the name Arian as an Alexandrian martyr, but no documentation was found showing that the cult of this martyr was known in Wales or in cultures with significant contact with Wales. We would have changed the name to Arianell to match the documentation, but this significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name. The submitter will not accept major changes. [Arian ferch Dafydd Mawr, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Furthermore, no documentation was submitted and none found that the Gaelic diminutive Cáit was used in period; submitted documentation showed it as a modern diminutive for this name. Barring documentation that this diminutive was found in period, it is not registerable. [Cáit Roche, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

The name Finnéadan appears to be a unique name for a legendary character. Ó Corr´in and Maguire, Irish Names, says of this name "Finnétan was a lady of the Déisi and ancestress of many nobles of Ossory." When Ó Corráin and Maguire provide only information about a single bearer with no other information, this usually means that the person so described is the only known bearer of the name. We have been unable to find this name in any other source which strengthens the argument that this name is unique. Barring another example of this name, it cannot be registered. [Finnéadan ingen Ruadhan, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Submitted as Genavieve le Fay, the submitted documentation, Colm Dubh, "Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" only shows the spelling Genevieve. No documentation was presented and none found that the submitted form is a reasonable variant of the documentated form. The byname was documented as la Fay. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Fay, shows de Fay as a placename, but only le Fey was [sic] a descriptive byname. Therefore, we have changed the name to Genevieve le Fey to match the documentation. [Genevieve le Fey, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Symon Cynder. no documentation was submitted and none found that cynder is a reasonable descriptive byname. The definitions found in the OED suggest it is not. The only definition we found in period that is even applicable to humans is "The 'ashes' of a dead body after cremation or (transf.) decomposition; a1547 SURREY Æneid IV. (R.), Is there no fayth Preseru'd to the cinders of Sichee?" However, we doubt this definition is applicable to a living person. The submitter indicated he was willing to change the byname to the French Cendré; this name is found in Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille. We have changed the name to Symon Cendré in order to register it. [Symon Cendré, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

Also, and more important, no documentation was provided that Dar el Beida (or a variant thereof) was the name of this place in period. Although the place known today as Casablanca existed in period, its name in Arabic until the 16th C was Anfa. The town was razed, rebuilt, and renamed Casa Branca by the Portuguese in the 16th C, but did not acquire its present Spanish and Arabic name until the late 18th C. Barring evidence that this is a period name for this place or that it follows period Arabic placename patterns, locative bynames based on Dar el-Beida cannot be registered. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Nadezhda Volynskaia, the documentation shows the name of the town from which the locative was formed as Volyn'. We have changed the name to Nadezhda Volyn'skaia to match the documentation. [Nadezhda Volyn'skaia, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Þorlákr bjarki Eiriksson, the submitted documentation shows the name from which the patronymic was formed as Eiríkr. Precedent holds that accents must either be used uniformly or dropped uniformly in Old Norse names. Therefore, we have added the accent back into the patronymic, giving Þorlákr bjarki Eiríksson. [Þorlákr bjarki Eiríksson, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the spelling Synnöve in period. Barring such documentation, this form is not registerable. There are several period variants of this name; we would change the given name to one of these forms, but the submitter will not accept changes. If the submitter is interested in an Old Norse name, Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, shows Sunnifa as an Old Norse form of this name. [Synnöve mána, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The submitter requested authenticity for Italian language/culture. The given name, Iride, was documented as a header form in De Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani, and was undated. We typically register header forms from this work as long as there is no indication they are modern forms. However, without a dated example of the given name, we cannot guarantee that this is an authentic Italian name. [Iride Corsellini, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

In addition, no documentation was submitted showing that Nyodai would be reasonable by itself as a nanori or yobina. The submitter included personal correpondance with a Japanese speaker speculating that the element Nyodai was a reasonable law name (a Buddist name aquired unpon becoming a nun or monk, or upon dying). However, it is long standing precedent that communication with a modern speaker is not adequate documentation for a period name. If the submitter wishes to resubmit this name element, she must address this issue. [Keaiji no Nyûdô Nyôdai, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Liadan an Shionnach, the documentation showed no examples of this byname that included the article. Therefore, we have changed the name to Liadan_Shionnach to match the documentation. [Liadan Shionnach, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Originally submitted as Ulfarr inn frækni, it was changed in kingdom to Úlfarr inn fr{oe}kni to match the submitted documentation. However, Orle and Argent Snail both provided examples of the byname spelled frækna including "valiant, stouthearted." In addition, accents in Old Norse names are optional as long as they are used or dropped consistently. Therefore, we have change the name back to the originally submitted form. [Ulfarr inn frækni, LOAR 11/2004, East-A]

Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, has this name as Þorkatla grafeld. We have changed the given name to this transcription to match the submitter documentation...[Þorkatla grafeld, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Jörgen von Unruh, this was an appeal of the return of this name in February 2004. At that time, the name was returned for lack of documentation of the given name and for using the locative preposition von with a descriptive byname...The submitter provided modern scholarly geneological works showing a member of the Dutch Royal family bearing the name von Unruh dated to the late 16th C. As genealogy sources routinely normalize spellings, they are not suitable for documentation of SCA name submissions on their own. In this case, the form von Unruh is the form of the name of this family popularized and used since the 18th C, when it became the fashion to add von to names as a sign of good birth. There is no evidence that this is the actual form used at that time, and the etymology of the name as a descriptive byname strongly suggests that this source uses standard modern names for these people instead of forms found in contemporary records. Therefore, we have dropped the preposition and registered this name as Jörgen_Unruh. [Jörgen Unruh, LoAR 10/2004, Atlantia-A]

If the submitter wishes to resubmit, we note that the given name Sadaqat is from an outdated article on Arab names. This problem has been reason for return:

Semeeah was documented from Da'ud ibn Auda's article "Arabic Women's Names" (http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/daud/arabicwomen.html). However, this article has been superceded by Da'ud's article "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices" (http://www.sca.org/heraldry/laurel/names/arabic-naming2.htm). There are some names that appear in the "Arabic Women's Names" article that do not appear in the newer "Period Arabic Names and Naming Practices". Da'ud explained that these are names which he "was not able to find [...] again, and thus I cannot cite a source for them or vouch for their accuracy." As a result, we do not have evidence of Semeeah as an Arabic name during our period. Lacking such evidence, this name must be returned. [Semeeah bint Qadir al-Aqsur, 02/2004 LoAR, R-Atlantia]

The newer version of the article has dropped names that cannot be documented to period, and this name does not appear in the new article. Sadaqah is the form of this name that appears in the new article. [Sadaqat Salas, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Finndabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, no documentation was provided and none found for the name Finndabhair. The cited documentation was for Finnabair/Fionnabhair. Because the patronymic is an Early Modern Irish form, we have changed the given name to Fionnabhair, the Early Modern Irish form. [Fionnabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Ellen DeLacey, the submitted documentation that contained the article had the de with a lowercase D and separated from the locative with a space. We have changed the name to Ellen de_Lacey to match the submitted documentation. [Ellen de Lacey, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

Originally submitted as Cynwrig ap Llywelyn, the name was changed at kingdom to Kynwrig ap Llywelyn to better comply with period Welsh naming practice. Although not noted on the LoI, the submitter had requested authenticity for 13th C Welsh language/culture, but accepted only minor changes. The documentation used for the given name, Tangwystyl ferch [sic] Morgant Glasvyn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th C Welsh Names", shows Cynwrig as the modern (post 14th C) form with Kenuric and Kenneric as the 13th C forms of this name. Simply changing the K to a C does not make this name more consistent with 14th C Welsh naming practices. An examination of the names in the article shows that the modern sound represented by the letters cy is consistently written ke in the 13th C forms. In addition, the same data shows that the sound represented by wr consistently appears as ur or er in the 13th C forms, so changing the initial sound without changing the middle sound merely produces a name that is inconsistent with both 13th C Welsh and any later form of the language. Lewelyn is a 13th C form of the patronymic found in the article mentioned above. Based on this information, Kenurig ap Lewelyn or Kenerig ap Lewelyn would be authentic 13th C forms of this name. Because the 13th C form of the given name looks significantly different, we feel changing to one of these forms would be a major change. Therefore, we have changed the given name back to the originally submitted form, and we have changed the patronymic to use the 13th C form Lewelyn in order to partially comply with his request for authenticity. [Cynwrig ap Lewelyn, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-A]

No documentation was provided and none found for the name or name element Kiho-. We would have dropped this element, but the submitter will not accept major changes. In addition, it is not clear where the submitter found the õ character used in this submission. The documentation for the yobina, p 198 of Solveig Throndaradottir, Name Construction in Medieval Japan, shows the elements used to construct this name as Hiko- and -jirou. Both parts of the name are found around 1600. [Kashiwadebe no Hikojirõ Kihõ, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-R]

The summarization of documentation of the given name cited the wrong header; the documentation in Withycombe was listed s.n. Lovell, not the cited Loveday. Submissions heralds, please be careful to proofread LoIs; miscited documentation may be cause for return. [Love of Halesworth, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

The summarization of documentation of the given name cited the wrong header; the documentation in Withycombe was listed s.n. Vitalis, not the cited Violet. Submissions heralds, please be careful to proofread LoIs; misciting documentation may be cause for return. [Vital Sandhurst, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

The source from which the given name is documented, John Hine Mundy, Men and Women at Toulouse in the Age of the Cathars, normalizes the given names. This source appears to be an excellent starting point for determining if a name was used in Toulouse in period, but it should not be an ending source for documenting period forms of given names. [Arsenda of Calais, LoAR 09/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Shoshonna Drakere, the summarization says that Shoshana [sic] is found in the Apocrypha and the New Testament. However, no information was provided for the version or translation where this form was found. Nor were photocopies included; please note that no version of The Bible or any apocrypha appear on the no-photocopy list. Since the College was unable to confirm that this spelling appeared in a period translation, we cannot register this form. [Sosana Drakere, LoAR 09/2004, Atenveldt-A]

No documentation was provided and none found of a Russian byname meaning "indifferent"; therefore this name cannot be registered under the lingua anglica allowance. Furthermore, by precedent, overly abstract English bynames of this sort are not registerable:

Niobe the Forgetful. [May 2002 LoAR Atlantia-R] "The byname the Forgetful has been registered a total of seven times, most recently in May 1994. Since that time, there have been several rulings regarding abstract descriptive bynames, including:
[returning the nickname the Arronious] Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid, le Wis the wise, Badinteheved bad in the head, le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud, le Hardy the courageous, le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil, Blaksoule black-soul. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname. (Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade, 10/96 p. 8)

The same argument applies to the byname the Indifferent. [Vlad the Indifferent, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-R]

Submitted as Ragnarr Ulfsaxi, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th-10th C Anglo-Danish or Danish. The second name has several problems. The submitter formed this name by combining the protheme ulf-, found in Old Norse given names, with the name Saxi. However, no documentation was provided and none found that combining Ulf- with a random Norse given name is a valid pattern for forming a Norse name. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Aveline Karnatz, the locative byname Karnatz, was documented as a header form in Bahlow, German Names. Bahlow gives no dates for this name, nor does he suggest that it was found in period. The earliest documented form of the name the College was able to find was dated to 1704. Without documentation of this name in period, it cannot be registered. We have substituted the placename Carnyn, dated to 1346 in Brechenmacher Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen. This name is similar, although not identical in sound, to the submitted Karnatz. [Aveline Carnyn, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Submitted as Alida de Conti, the submitted documentation showed the form de' Conti. This is a scribal abbreviation for dei; we have changed her name to Alida dei Conti to match the submitted documentation. [Alida dei Conti, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

The name of the author of the article from which the names were documented was not included. Please include author's names when summarizing documentation. It makes it much easier for commenters to verify information and is a professional courtesy to the authors to properly credit their work. [Ysambart Courtin, LoAR 09/2004, Lochac-A]

Although the documentation was adequately summarized, the name of the author of the article from which the names were documented was not included. Please include author's names when summarizing documentation; it makes it much easier for commenters to verify information. [Owen Cantor ap Hughe, LoAR 09/2004, Lochac-A]

The documentation for the given name was not adequately summarized. While all the header forms were shown, nothing is included about what the source says about these forms. Failure to summarize documentation may be cause for returning a name. For information about summarizing documentation, see the July and August 2004 cover letters. [Alix de Marseille, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Teleri Cadarn, no documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that the name Teleri was used by humans in period. Gruffudd, Welsh Names for Children, derives the modern use of this name from the name of a river. While the name Teleri does appear in the Arthurian tale "Culhwch ac Olwen," an examination of this story shows that the name occurs once in passing when a character swears by a long list of names and events. Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature. However, Teleri is just a name mentioned in the course of the tale; it is not even the name of a character. Barring documentation that the name was used by humans in period, or that it is the name of a significant period literary character, it cannot be registered. The similar sounding name Eleri is found in Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany in the names list taken from Bartrum's Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts and dated examples from Gruffudd. We have changed the name to Eleri Cadarn in order to register it. [Eleri Cadarn, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Joselito Leofric, this name has several problems. No documentation was provided and none found that Joselito was used in period or that the period Spanish diminutives were formed by adding -lito. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

The documentation for this name was not adequately summarized on the LoI. The summarization of the byname was simply that it appeared in a particular source; no dates were include and no information about whether the name was a header form or a dated citation. Such inadequate summarizations may be sufficient reason to return a name. For more information on properly summarizing documentation, please see the July and August 2004 cover letters. [Anpliça Fiore, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

When citing an article from found on the web, it is important to include the name of the article. This makes it easier for the commenters to verify information. In addition, the author of the articles cited was not properly credited. Please include author's full name when summarizing documentation. It makes it much easier for commenters to verify information and is a professional courtesy to the authors to properly credit their work. [Morgaine Scott, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

Submitted as Melchior auf Missen, the documentation was unclear as to what type of byname Missen was or whether it was a period byname. However, one of the miniatures in Codex Manesee [sic], http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/cpg848, is titled Margrave Heinrich von Misen. We have changed the name to Melchior von Misen to match the documentation. [Melchior von Misen, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

The documentation for this name was not adequately summarized on the LoI. The summarization of both the given name and the byname was simply that the name appeared in a particular source; no dates were include and no information about whether the name was a header form or a dated citation. Such inadequate summarizations may be sufficient reason to return a name. For more information on properly summarizing documentation, please see this month's cover letter. [Caitríona inghean ui Chionaodha, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

[Money Bag Herald.] No documentation was included for this submission. This in itself is sufficient reason for return. [West, Kingdom of, LoAR 09/2004, West-R]

[Green Boot Herald.] No documentation was included for this submission. This in itself is reason for return. Submissions that cannot be documented should either be returned in Kingdom or should include information about why no documentation was provided. Without either documentation or an explanation for the lack of documentation, we should return such names. Fortunately, the College of Arms graciously provided documentation for this title. Therefore, we will not return this heraldic title. [West, Kingdom of the, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

From Pelican: On Summarizing Name Documentation

I and many other members of the College of Arms spend an inordinate amount of and energy chiding folks for inadequate summarization of documentation. I assume that these lacks are due to not knowing how to summarize documentation. Therefore, here are some thoughts and guidelines for summarizing documentation on a Letter of Intent.

First, what is the purpose of documentation and what should a summarization of documentation include? The purpose of documentation is to show the following:

- that all elements of a name and all spellings used are found before 1650 (or are specifically allowed by the Rules for Submission or Laurel precedent)

- the specific language or culture where each name element/spelling is found

- Demonstrate that the entire name, as well as each name phrase, is constructed properly and that the grammar of each element is correct.

Good summarization pulls out the main points of the documentation and shows how they support the items listed above. It also provides a roadmap that others can use to find, double-check, and evaluate documentation.

Always name your sources. Always cite information so it is easy for others to find.

Bibliographical information is very important to our name game. Because none of us actually live in the middle ages, we must rely on written information to document our submissions. Sometimes we use documents found in period, sometimes we use dictionaries that include dated forms of words and names, and sometimes we use books and journals about historical subjects. Every letter of intent and letter of comment should include some form of bibliography. This can be a list of all works cited in a letter included at the end of the letter, a list of all works cited for an item at the end of each item, or information about a work as you cite it in the course of your letter. Whichever way you choose is acceptable. Bibliographical information should include the following:

- For books, note the name of the book, the author and/or translator, and, for works with multiple editions, the edition number. Other information, such as publisher, or year published, or ISBN can be useful, but is not crucial for our purposes.

- For print articles, note the name of the article, the author, the journal in which the article appeared, and the date of publication.

- For Web pages, note the name of the article, the author (if that information is available), and the URL.

- For Academy of Saint Gabriel letters, note that it is a Saint Gabriel letter, the URL, and the client number.

So, once you've named the work where the documentation is found, how do you make it possible to find the particular bit used as documentation? For works in dictionary format, include the head word, for example, "This name is found in Black, Surnames of Scotland s.n. Lucasson." For other books, include the page number; for books with double columns, include the column number as well. For Web articles, include headwords if the article uses them, or list the particular section if the article is divided into sections.

Be specific. Include examples. Include dates. Associate dates and spellings appropriately.

If the documentation shows the exact form of the name submitted, say so. If there is a date or multiple dates associated with the exact spelling, say so. If the spelling is a header form, say so.

Sometimes you are showing that a constructed name follows a period pattern or that a spelling follows a pattern found in period forms of a name. In this case, include all of the names used to form the pattern and include their associated dates. Note that one example is NOT a pattern. My preference (although this is not a requirement) is for at least three examples of any given pattern.

Sometimes the context in which the name appears matters; sometimes context can show the grammatical case of a name, how it's being used, and whether the name is allegorical or a name used by humans in period. In these cases, it is useful to include a short quote from the documentation showing the name, or the pattern, in question. When citing Laurel precedent, include a quote of the most recent confirmation of the precedent or the most descriptive version.

Translations of documentation are also important - make sure to include a translation of any quote included in your documentation. It doesn't have to be a good translation (although good translations are appreciated), but\it does need to be there. The Babblefish website, http://www.babblefish.com/babblefish/language_webt.htm, can often give enough of a sense of a non-English language that you can use it for your summarization (although it is not a good tool for primary documentation of non-English words and phrases.

I hope this article proves useful to submissions heralds with questions about what is expected when summarizing documentation. Remember, you are not alone out there. If you need help, ask. I am always happy to answer questions about summarizing documentation, as are most members of the College of Arms. There are many online resources and mailing lists where questions about documentation and summarization can be answered. Good luck, and good writing! [CL 09/2004]

When summarizing documentation for a name found in a work of period literature, especially one that is unfamiliar to many members of the College of Arms, more information than usual is needed. Publication information or a Web page on which the work is found must be included, as well as a quote from the work itself showing the context in which the name is found. This is necessary for the commenters to determine whether an unfamiliar or unusual name appears in the appropriate grammatical case and, in some cases, whether it is an allegorical name or used by a human character. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2044, Ansteorra-R]

Submitted as Tegwared MacAuley, we have changed the name to Tegwaret to match the submitted documentation. [Tegwaret MacAuley, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found of a pattern of usage for the deuterotheme -lautern. Although the documentation included the period placename Kaiserslautern, this was the sole example of this usage located so far. This does not support a pattern, nor does it support givenname+lautern as a byname or placename pattern. We would change the byname to von Lautern, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Wilhelm Ludwig von Rabeslautern, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Cécile de Lorraine, the given name was documented from Withycombe as the French form of Cecilia. However, Withycombe shows this as the modern French form, not a period form. The documentation showed the form Cecille from Aryanhwy ferch [sic] Catmael "Names from a 1587 Tax Roll from Provins." We have, therefore, changed the name to Cecille to match the submitted documentation. [Cecille de Lorraine, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

Listed on the LoI as Aelfled aet Otreburne, the forms and the documentation showed Ælfled æt Otreburne. As the submitted form is the one suggested by Laurel as an appropriate Old English form of this name, we have changed the name back to the spelling on the forms. [Ælfled æt Otreburne, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

The name was a resubmission, but the documentation for the parts of the name was not summarized. It is as necessary to summarize the relevant points of documentation for a resubmission as it is for an original submission. Also, for a resubmission, the reason for the original return as well as the returned name should be included in the summarization. Failure to summarize relevant documentation and return information may be reason for the return if the College is unable or unwilling to supply the missing information. [Ælfled æt Otreburne, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Although the College was able to fill in the blanks, bibliographic details about the UK Public Records Office source were not provided, nor was this information adequately summarized. When providing information from the web, please give the URL where the documentation can be found, as well as the name/title of the web page. In addition, for souces unfamiliar to many members of the College of Arms, provide as much information as possible from the documentation in the summary. [Basil Faulke, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

When citing documentation from Black's The Surnames of Scotland, please include the header forms in the summarization. This makes is easier for the commenters to verify documentation. In addition, if the cited source provides dates, the appropriate dates should be included in the summary. [Cicilia Lyon, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

The documentation for his name was not adequately summarized. The College kindly filled in the blanks here. However, had they not done so, this inadequate summary would have been reason to return this name. [Eleyne de Comnocke, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Hans Bahlow has produced several onomastics works, and a translation of his Deutsches Namenlexikon: Familien- und Vornamen nach Ursprung und Sinn erklaert is widely used in the SCA. All of these works include the words "German" or "Deutsche" and "Names" or "Namen" in the title. When citing documentation from any work by Bahlow, please include the full name of the work in which the name is found. [Kaspar von Helmenstede, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Listed on the LoI as Quataryna de Montpelier, the forms showed Quataryna de Montpelher. Montpelher is the modern Occitan name for Montpellier. The Medieval Music and Arts Foundation, http://www.medieval.org, lists a Gormonda de Montpelher, Comte de Foix, as writing a siventes during the age of the troubadours. This is sufficient evidence to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt that this is an appropriate period name for this place. Therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Quataryna de Montpelher, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Listed on the LoI as Rhodri Ysoglaig, the form and documentation both showed Rodri Ysoglaig. The submitter also requested authenticity for 12th-14th C Welsh. As the originally submitted form is a lovely Welsh name from his desired period, we have changed the name back to the spelling on the forms. [Rodri Ysoglaig, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Iuliana an Einigh inghean Chatháil, the documentation cited for the patronymic name did not include the accent. We have, therefore, changed the name to Iuliana an Einigh inghean Chathail to match the documentation. [Iuliana an Einigh inghean Chathail, LoAR 08/2004, Middle-A]

[Ray de Soleil Pursuivant] Submitted as Rayon de Soleil Pursuivant, the charge from which the title was drawn was documented as Ray de Soleil. We have changed this title to the documented form. [Caer Galen, Barony of, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

When summarizing documentation from dictionary-format sources, please include header word under which the documentation is found. Also, when summarizing names from Web articles, please include either the full name of the article in the summarization, or include an appropriate cross reference to a bibliography attached to the LoI. All of these items help the commenters double-check documentation. [Alienor Fitzhenry, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

When summarizing names from Web articles, please either include the full name of the article in the summarization, or include an appropriate cross reference to a bibliography attached to the LoI. Doing this helps the commenters double-check documentation. [Elysant atten Oke, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

Solin and Salomie's Repertorium Nominum Gentilium et Cognominum Latino is not in CoA Administrative Handbook Appendix H, Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel, but no photocopies from this source were included with the submission. If the commenters had not supplied further information about the names documented from this source, we would have been forced to return this name. Please make sure to include photocopies of pages from sources not on the no-photocopy list. [Titus Scipio Germanicus, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

Submitted as Nathanial Urswick, no documentation was provided and none found for this spelling of the given name or for a regular ie to ia switch in English orthography. We have changed the given name to Nathaniel to match the submitted documentation. [Nathaniel Urswick, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Annibella Silver, no documentation was submitted and none found showing the submitted spelling in period. Nor is there evidence for a pattern of a->i spelling shifts in the middle of a name. Therefore, we have changed the name to Annabella Silver. Annabella is the Latin form of Annabel; the vernacular form is dated to 1327 in Withycombe. [Annabella Silver, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The only summarization of the documentation for the given name was that it appeared in a particular source; no documentation was included for the byname. By Laurel precedent, the College is not required to document name submissions where the documentation is not adequately summarized on the LoI. In this case, multiple members of the College provided documentation for these names. Because the College was willing to do this extra work, this lack of summarization will not be held against the submitter. Kingdom submissions heralds should be aware that inadequate summarization of supporting documentation has been and will continue to be a reason for return. [Diele de Irlande, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Wilhelus le Cassé, the summary documented le Cassé from Dauzet, Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et Prenoms de France and said it was "a locative byname [sic], "a man from Cassé," a region in southwestern France." However, this isn't what Dauzat says. Instead, this appears to be a toponymic byname for a man who has oak trees growing on his property. Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille also shows the forms Delcasse and Lecasse. Both Morlet and Dauzet also show a second derivation for the name Casse, a designator for a maker and seller of saucepans ( en anc.fr.; désigne le marchand de casseroles.) Larousse, Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique dates casse, meaning casserole to 1341. Therefore, we are changing this name to Wilhelus le Casse to match the form in Larousse. [Wilhelus le Casse, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Although Tselomudrenni was documented as constructed from a Russian word meaning "the chaste," no evidence was submitted and none found suggesting this byname was either used in Russia or followed a pattern of Russian descriptive bynames. We would drop this element, but the submitter would not accept major changes. Therefore, this name must be returned. [Voron Gregor'ev Tselomudrenni, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Fína ingen Chionaith, we have changed the spelling of the given name to Fíne to match the documentation. [Fíne ingen Chináeda, LoAR 06/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Wilhelm Wildemann mit den Hunden, the documentation showed the second byname in all lowercase. We have, therefore, changed this byname to mit den hunden to match the submitted documentation. [Wilhelm Wildemann mit den hunden, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Alastair Corum, no documentation was provided and none found that Corum is a medieval name. The submitter indicated by he would accept the byname Corran if Corum was not registerable; we have, therefore, made that change. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Corran date M'Corrin and Corrin in the Isle of Man in 1504, and Heather Rose Jones's article, "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century," has Mac Corran. Given this, the variant Corran seems reasonable. [Alastair Corran, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Bella Delmare, the byname was documented from the names list in the "Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532." This source lists names in all capital letters and eliminates spaces in name phrases. The usual documentary form of this byname is del Mare; we have changed the byname to this form. [Bella del Mare, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

The given name was documented from Yonge, History of Christian Names, which has not been considered a trustworthy source since 1992, and Dunkling and Gosling, The New American Dictionary of Baby Names, which is also not reliable documentation for period names. If a submitter does not provide adequate documentation, submissions heralds should not be shy about finding and substituting better documentation, either on their own or from commentary provided by other heralds. Use of sources known to be unreliable as the sole documentation for a name is reason for return if none of the commenters provide better documentation. [Bridget O'Brian, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Justina Elizabeth Vigilanté, the byname was documented from Fucilla, Our Italian Surnames. The problem with Fucilla is that there are few, if any, dates in this source. So, in most instances, it is not possible to tell simply from reading the entry in Fucilla if the name is period or not. In most cases, the same name may be found in other sources, in others, a pattern of similar names may be documented. In this case, no dated citations for this name were found. [Justina Elizabeth Vigilant, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

The byname al-Rakhshandra has several problems. First, the submitted documentation shows the spelling Rakhshanda not Rakhshandra. Second, Qazi, What's in a Muslim Name, the source for this name, lists it as an 'ism (given name). The submitter has attempted to turn it into a laqab (a type of epithet) by adding an al- in front of it, but Arabic names almost never form laqabs this way. Finally, no evidence was provided and none found that Rakshanda is a name found in period. This name is found only in Qazi, where it is shown as a modern name. Barring evidence that it is a period name, it cannot be registered.

The problems with this name illustrate the problems with using Qazi as a source: it is intended for use by those interested in forming a modern Muslim name, most of the names are undated, and at least some of the modern or undated names are unique to this source. While it may be a reasonable place to start name research, it is not a reasonable place to end it. At one time, it was a useful source because no better resources were available. However, this is no longer the case. Therefore, Qazi is longer be acceptable as adequate documentation or support for an SCA name. [Jaida al-Rakhshandra, LoAR 06/2004, West-R]

DUTCH and FRISIAN

The name Delia was ruled unregisterable barring documentation that it was used by humans in July 2003:

Regarding Delia, the LoI stated: 'Support for "Delia" is found in period England based upon the fact that the sonnets of poet Samuel Daniel (published 1592) are dedicated to "Delia", (http://www.sonnets.org/daniel.htm), (http://www.sonnets.org/ erskinec.htm).' "However, it turns out that Delia is not a name used in literature for a specific human person. Rather, it is a name used for an idealized woman. Aryanhwy merch Catmael provided information from Withycombe regarding this name: "Withycombe s.n. Delia says that it was "an epithet of Artemis, derived from her birthplace Delos. It was a favourite name with pastoral poets in the 17th and 18th C." "Metron Ariston provided a further explanation of the use of Delia in period poetry: "'[...] Daniel almost certainly was drawing on Latin sources in his use of Delia as a code name for his ideal lady. Delia appears as the name of the object of the affection of the classical Latin poet in his love poems which were quite popular in the Renaissance. (Machiavelli specifically refers to reading Tibullus during a rural retreat in letter to a friend, Francesco Vettori, written in December 1513: "I have a book in my pocket, either Dante or Petrarch, of one of the lesser poets, such as Tibullus, Ovid, or the like. I read of their tender passions and their loves, remember mine, enjoy myself a while in that sort of dreaming.") The name also appears as the name of a love interest in Vergil's Eclogues which were even more popular in period and were certainly known to Daniel who did some Vergilian translations.' "Lacking evidence that Delia was used as a name for a human character, rather than as an allegorical reference to an idealized woman, this name falls into the same category as "Everyman" (see "Using Names from Literary Sources" in the Cover Letter to the February 1999 LoAR for more details). As the only use of Delia we have in period literature is allegorical, it is not registerable as a literary name."
Boke has found Delia as a Dutch name in a Latin context dated to 1542. Therefore, Delia is registerable as a Dutch given name. [Delia Weaver, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name mixes Dutch and English, which is one step beyond period practice. [Delia Weaver, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name mixes Dutch and English; this is one step from period practice. [Dirk Bodkin the Sharp, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Jörgen von Unruh, this was an appeal of the return of this name in February 2004. At that time, the name was returned for lack of documentation of the given name and for using the locative preposition von with a descriptive byname...The submitter provided modern scholarly geneological works showing a member of the Dutch Royal family bearing the name von Unruh dated to the late 16th C. As genealogy sources routinely normalize spellings, they are not suitable for documentation of SCA name submissions on their own. In this case, the form von Unruh is the form of the name of this family popularized and used since the 18th C, when it became the fashion to add von to names as a sign of good birth. There is no evidence that this is the actual form used at that time, and the etymology of the name as a descriptive byname strongly suggests that this source uses standard modern names for these people instead of forms found in contemporary records. Therefore, we have dropped the preposition and registered this name as Jörgen_Unruh. [Jörgen Unruh, LoAR 10/2004, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Lijsbet van Hortogen bosch, this form is not a correct grammatical form for Dutch. Nebuly notes, "The issue is that it is a contracted genitive form of the obsolete kind that modern grammars don't deal with. The name literally means 'the Duke's wood.' I'll keep looking, but I haven't found an example of a byname that used the whole phrase. After all, Hieronymous Bosch didn't use the whole name, and he was from that city." However, the "Oisterwijk, Judicial Archives, inventory number 144, 1422-1423" (http://rhc.tilburg.nl/studiezaal/naderetoegangen/otw/prototw144-5.htm) shows an address formed from this placename, although it does not show the placename as the byname. Forms include van den Bosch, van tsHertogen Bosch and van tsHertogenbosch. We have changed the name to Lijsbet van tsHertogen Bosch, which is the smallest change that matches this new documentation. [Lijsbet van tsHertogen Bosch, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

This combines a Latinized Dutch and German byname in a single name, but such combinations are not considered a step from period practice.[Wilhelma von Ravensburg, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Svava in litla, this name is presumptous according to the Rules for Submissions VI.2. which says "nmes [sic] containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous... Such claims include...given names that were never used by humans, like the names of some Giants or Dwarves in Norse mythology." According to the submitted documentation, Svava is a Valkyrie; no documentation was submitted or any found that this name was ever used by humans. We have changed the given name to Svana, a name with a similar look and feel found in the Landnámabók. [Svana in litla, LoAR 07/2004, An Tir-A]

Listed on the LoI as Delion le fils de feu Colinet, the forms showed Delion fils de feu Colinet. The College found some later examples of this name form without the article, therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Delion fils de feu Colinet, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Most of the submitted documentation was from Coughlin, Irish Christian Names:an a-z [sic] of First Names. This is not a reliable source for name documentation. It may be a reasonable place to start looking for a name, but it is not a reasonable place to stop researching the name. [Caitilín inghean Tomáis uí Dhuibihir, LoAR 07/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Listed on the LoI as Bartholomew of Baskin, the forms showed Bartholomew_Baskin. The submitted documentation also shows the dated forms of this name without a preposition; this is not surprising, since the byname is derived from an unmarked patronymic. We have dropped the preposition and changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Bartholomew Baskin, LoAR 07/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Ruadán Fota, the documentation showed that the given name had two accents, Rúadán. We have added the accent to the given name to match the documentation. [Rúadán Fota, LoAR 07/2004, Lochac-A]

Listed on the LoI as Maredudd Cethin, the forms show Meradudd Cethin. No documentation was submitted and none found that the spelling Meradudd is a reasonable variant of this name. It is not found in any of the standard sources, and a web search shows it used only in reference to and by this submitter. Heather Rose Jones in A Welsh Miscellany lists the spelling from the LoI. We have, therefore, registered this name as listed on the LoI. [Maredudd Cethin, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Amanita Villarosa, the documentation showed a masculine name, Amannito in 15th C Florence. We have changed the given name to Amannita to match the submitted documentation. [Amannita Villarosa, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

The name was documented from Brechnmacher as a header form. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. (This has been handled on a case by case basis.) Tonnemacher is a modern form of this name; period forms listed in Brechenmacher and Bahlow include Tunenbynder in 1519 and Tunninbinder in 1378. Certainly, for an authentic name, we would recommend substituting one of these forms. However, the header form, Tonnemacher does appear to be formed in a period fashion. A scan through Bahlow shows a number of period names that use the deuterotheme -macher, including panczermacher in 1431 (s.n. Panzer), Pulvermacher in 1493 (s.n. Pulver) and Brechenmaker 1550 (s.n. Brechenmacher). [Laurenz Tonnemacher, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Vincènzo di Bartolomèo de Bréscia, the forms showed Vincènzo di Bartolomèo da Bréscia...Also, the name was documented from de Felice. Accents in this work are a pronunciation buide, not part of the spelling of the name. Therefore, we have changed the name to the spelling on the forms and dropped the accents, giving, Vincenzo di Bartolomeo da Brescia. [Vincenzo di Bartolomeo da Brescia, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

The placename, von Lüchtringen is problematic. No documentation was provided showing that this place existed in period or that this was a reasonable period spelling. However, the website www.luechtringen.de lists the history of this place going back to 822. This page mentions that in 900 the place is called Lutringi with a Lambert von Lüchtringen in 1224. While such websites are unreliable as primary documentation, combined with the Bahlow Deutschelands Geographish Namen citation this is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Wolfgang Eber von Lüchtringen, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Lenairt Melcior Harmans, no documentation was provided and none found for the use of double given names in Dutch naming practice prior to 1600. Barring such documentation, Dutch names using double given names are not registerable. Because the submitter specifically allowed dropping the second given name, we have done this in order to register this name. [Lenairt Harmans, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

...No documentation was provided that Roas is a period Frisian spelling of this word, but given that it is a modern spelling of a very common period word (rose), we are willing to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Femke de Roas, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-A]

ENGLISH

In England, Winter is a patronymic surname. When the word Winter is found in a placename, it is either as a possessive element (place belonging to a man named Winter) or a descriptive element (place used in the winter). [Roland Winter, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name mixes Old English and Old Norse; this is one step from period practice. [Wulfgar gerpir, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

...However, English given names are still registerable without penalty with French bynames. [Jocosa d' Auxerre, LoAR 01/2005, Meridies-A]

The name combines English and Gaelic; this is one step from period practice. [Damaris Baróid, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Róisi MacCracken, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

As documented, this name mixes English and Italian, which is one step from period practice. However, Hund notes that de Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani cites Elias as a Latinized form of the Italian Elia. Therefore, this name mixes a Latinized Italian and vernacular Italian mix. [Elias Loredan, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines English and Old Norse in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Dalla Jade, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

Submitted as Avelyn of the Oak_Grove, no examples were found of placenames or locatives with either the prothemes Oak-/Oke-/Oken- and the deuterotheme -grove with a space between protheme and deuterotheme. In addition, the form of this name is a locative rather than a generic topographic; in this case the article the is not used. We have changed the name to Avelyn of_Oakgrove to match period English naming practice. [Avelyn of Oakgrove, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

...this name mixes Old Norse and English, which is one step from period practice. [Vallaulfr Rurikson, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in a single name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Caitríona of Lindisfarne, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Amleth Moor, the name combined Danish and English in a single name phrase in violation of RfS 3.1.a Linguistic Consistency. In addition, while there is evidence of the use of Old Norse names and words in English placenames, no documentation was submitted and none found for the use of medieval Danish in English placenames. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

In addition, while there is evidence of the use of Old Norse names and words in English placenames, no documentation was submitted and none found for the use of medieval Danish in English placenames. There is a similar sounding element found in English placenames: Mills, A Dictionary of British [sic] Place-Names s.n. Ambleston has Amleston in 1230. Amlesmore is a similar sounding name to the one submitted. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name combines German and English in the same name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Hette Arnold, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Taran of Azov, the locative combines Russian and English in a single name phrase. Therefore, we have changed the name to the completely Russian Taran z Azov. [Taran z Azov, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name mixes English and Spanish, which is one step from period practice. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Listed on the LoI as Owlsherste, Shire of, the forms showed Owlsherst, Shire of. Mills, A Dictionary of English Place Names, show Tigelherst 1167 (s.n. Tilehurst), Saxingherste 1180 (s.n. Sissinghurst), and Schettokesherst 1239 (s.n. Shadoxhurst). Given this documentation, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Owlsherst, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Sterling is the submitter's legal middle name. Middle names are registerable as given names under the mundan [sic] name allowance if they are given names by type. The submitter has included documentation for Sterling as a 12th C English given name. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name combines an Old English name with an Old Norse name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Wulfric bláskegg, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

While the word Contrarye has several attested meanings in period, none of them is appropriate for a a descriptive byname. The period meanings boil down to "opposite of, opposed to, antagonistic toward" and in each example contrary contains a comparitive; for each person, state, or emotion there is a contrary person, state, or emotion to which it is compared. The definition that makes a reasonable byname, of antagonistic or untoward disposition, perverse, or obstinately self-willed" is dated to 1850. If the submitter is interested in a byname with a similar meaning, we suggest le Wilfulle dated to 1275 in Reaney, The Origins of English Surnames. [Jane the Contrarye, LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-R]

This name mixes the Gaelic Sisuile with the English Butler; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Sisuile Butler, LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-A]

As registered, the name mixes Gaelic and English, which is one step from period practice. [Óengus Minogue, LoAR 12/2004, Outlands-A]

This name mixes Dutch and English, which is one step beyond period practice. [Delia Weaver, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Genavieve le Fay, the submitted documentation, Colm Dubh, "Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" only shows the spelling Genevieve. No documentation was presented and none found that the submitted form is a reasonable variant of the documentated form. The byname was documented as la Fay. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Fay, shows de Fay as a placename, but only le Fey was [sic] a descriptive byname. Therefore, we have changed the name to Genevieve le Fey to match the documentation. [Genevieve le Fey, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Raynagh Binnech ingen Griffyn, the patronymic phrase combines the Gaelic particle ingen with the English or Welsh patronymic Griffyn in violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency. The introduction to Heather Rose Jones, "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century," says that the Red Book is a collection of Latin documents written by an English speaker; while the names represent English, Irish, and Welsh names, they are written in Latin or English. Therefore, we have dropped the Gaelic patronymic particle in order to register the name. [Raynagh Griffyn, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Second, it combines Swedish and English in the same name; this was declared one step from period practice in July 2002. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Finally, although there are many examples of placenames of the form "placename on the rivername" in English, there is no evidence locative bynames were ever formed using such phrases. We generally allow attested English placenames to be used as English locative bynames because there is a well attested pattern of such translations. However, because there is no evidence for complete phrase placenames being used as locative bynames, such names used as bynames are a step beyond period practice. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

The name mixes Irish and English; this is one step beyond period practice. [Béoán Freborn, LoAR 12/2004, Lochac-A]

This name mixes an Italian saint's name with an English byname, such mixtures are one step beyond period practice. [Eliana Fraser, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Dutch and English; this is one step from period practice. [Dirk Bodkin the Sharp, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines an English given name with an Anglicized Irish patronymic; this is one step from period practice. [Gareth McGilchrist, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name mixes an Irish given name with an English surname; this is one step beyond period practice. [Tadhg Fairbairn, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

The name combines Gaelic and English, which is one step from period practice. [Deran Wylde, LoAR 11/2004, Ansteorra-A]

In this case, Aelfric is currently unregisterable to those to whom it is not grandfathered. The spelling Aelfric is unattested; Old English names spelled with Æ are usually found in Middle English using A, Ai, E, Ei, or sometimes Æ. No examples have been found of an Æ --> Ae transition. Without such documentation, names that substitute Ae for Æ are not registerable. [Gwenhwyvar filia Aelfric, LoAR 11/2004, Artemisia-A]

Submitted as Flenn ingen Baldwin, as submitted, the name has several problems. First, the patronymic phrase combines Gaelic and English in violation of RfS III.1.a. Linguistic consistency. We have dropped the patronymic marker to make this name phrase registerable. [Faoileann Baldwin, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The given name Laurana was documented on the LoI to 1655. This is outside our gray-area (1600-1650), and without an earlier citation, the name would be unregisterable. Bronwen noted, "This name appears in a work by Emanuel Forde with the title Parismus, the Renovmed Prince of Bohemia. His most famous, delectable, and pleasant Historie. Conteining His Noble Battailes fought against the Persians. His loue to Laurana, the Kings Daughter of Thessaly. And his straunge Aduentures in the Desolate Iland. With the miseries and miserable imprisonment, Laurana endured in the Iland of Rockes. And a description of the Chiualrie of the Phrygian Knight, Pollipus: and his constant loue to Uioletta which was published at London in 1598." This dates Laurana before 1600, making it registerable as an English literary name. [Laurana de Landa, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as West Dragonshire, Shire of, this is an appeal of the return of this name in July, 2003. The name was returned for these reasons:

The theme -shire is a designator, and therefore, invisible to the consideration of the name. Removing it leaves West Dragon, and the element Dragon is not registerable without the addition of a toponomyic theme such as -ton or -ham as a second element.

English shire names were not formed by adding a compass direction to the shire name.

The appeal provided the name of several English shires that contain compass direction words in the name, and argues that the group wishes to use -shire as the toponymic theme in its name rather than as the designator. If West Dragonshire is not registerable, the shire indicated they would accept West Dragoningshire/Shire of West Dragoning.

Several examples of shire names containing compass directions were given, including Northamptonshire, Essexshire, Suffolkshire. This clearly shows that compass directions appears in names of English shires; therefore, shire names containing compass directions are, certainly, registerable. However, the main issue of the previous return, supported by further research, is that in English placenames neither compass direction elements nor the theme shire are found modifying name elements that are not themselves already valid placenames. Because Dragon is not in itself a valid placename, West Dragon, Dragonshire, and West Dragonshire are also not valid placenames.

The alternative form suggested by the shire, West Dragoningshire does seem to follow English placenaming patterns. The element Dragoning using the theme -ing which is found in English placenames derived from personal names, from action words, and from some toponymic elements. Therefore, its use with Dragon should be acceptable, if unlikely. We have, therefore, registered this form. Because this name uses the SCA-compatible theme dragon, it is one step from period practice. [West Dragoningshire, LoAR 11/2004, Drachenwald-R]

Submitted as Aelric_Blackthorn, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C England and accepted all changes. The name Aelric is a misrepresentation of the Old English Ælric; Ae is not a valid spelling for Æ; when such names are translated to Middle English, the Æ typically appears as either A, Ai, or E. [Ælric de Blacktorn, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Finally, Aelfwyn is not a reasonable variant of the Old English name Ælfwyn. There is no evidence that the character Æ was interchangable with AE in either Old English or Middle English. [Aelfwyn the Irresponsible, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-R]

There was some discussion about whether double surnames were registerable in English. The practice is rare but found on occasion. Laurel wrote in February 2002:

There hasn't yet been much research done regarding double surnames in 16th C England. But from the evidence that has been found, we can say that in cases where both names were inherited, the two surnames indicate the surnames of the child's parents. In fact, Withycombe (p. xliii) dates Robert Browne Lilly, to 1593, noting that his father was John Lilly and his mother's maiden name was Browne. In a number of the instances of double surnames in the Dymock parish registers, this construction was an indication of illegitimacy. But considering the small amount of data we have at this time, it would be premature to presume that this is always the case. Indeed, the notation in Withycombe of Browne being "his mother's maiden name" would indicate that some of the time both parent's surnames were given to children born to married parents. [Benedict Saint-Jean Eldridge, LoAR 02/2004, A-Atenveldt]
Therefore, this name should be registerable as submitted. [Creature Twyne Dragon, LoAR 10/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines an Old English given name with a Middle English byname; this is one step from period practice. Several commenters stated that there should also be a step for temporal disparity. However, Cerdic is dated to 981 in Searle, and Wlfraven to 1273 in Bardsley; this is under, although just under, 300 years. [Cerdic Wlfraven, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

Luckily, the byname can be changed so that it is constructed using period elements and following period English placename constructions. Dragon is documented as an English surname in Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames s.n. Dragon, with Walter Dragon in 1221. By precedent:

When family names, as opposed to given names, are used in English placenames, the family name usually comes after the descriptive feature. However, Mills does have some examples of "family name+topographic", including s.n. Towersey, Turrisey, "of the Tower family, Towers' eg" 1240; s.n. Tey, Great, Merkys Tey, "Tege of the de Merck family" 1475; s.n. Leigh Bessilles Lee, " Leigh of the Bessil family" 1539. Thus, Rivermoor is not correct, because the family name is not in the genitive (possessive) case here. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames cite a John Riuer in 1327, so an appropriate form of a name meaing "Moor of the River family" is Riversmor(e) or Rivers Mor(e) [Rivermoor, Shire of, 05/2004, A-Trimaris]

In keeping with this precedent, we have changed this name to Tara Dragonswood. [Tara of Dragonswood, LoAR 10/2004, Ansteorra-A]

The submitter argued that the byname was plausible as an unmarked patronymic contemporary with the given name, which Withycombe dated to 1199 and 1346. However, none of the dated forms of the patronymic from her period retained the "Æ", meaning that Ælfwine must be an Old English form. Name phrases must be consistent with the grammar and practice of a single language/culture. There is no evidence that unmarked patronymics were used in Old English. As the submitter will not accept changes, we can neither add the patronymic marker to the byname, nor can we change it to an appropriate Middle English unmarked patronymic. [Constancia Ælfwine, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

The question was raised whether the byname Halvedievel is a violation of RfS VI.2, which says "Society names may not claim device descent, superhuman abilities or powers that the submitter does not actually possess." If we were to take the name literally (as, for example, one would in a Japanese anime), then yes, this name would be a claim to be of non-human descent. However, it is a common practice in English to call a naughty child a "little devil"; it is a common analogous nickname. Just like the naughty child, it is extremely unlikely that the nickname Halvedievel refers to the descent rather than the behaviour of the person so named. Therefore, the name is registerable. [Wulfric Halvedievel, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Connor mac Lommán, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it combines a post-1200 Anglicized given name with a Middle Gaelic byname; as with Old and Middle (pre-1200) and Early Modern Gaelic (post 1200), this is also one step from period practice. [Connor mac Lomáin, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

Mara was documented as a Biblical name from a Spanish translation. The name appears in Ruth 1:20. The Wycliffe translation of the Bible into Middle English, which appeared in 1395, gives this passage as "To whiche sche seide, Clepe ye not me Noemy, that is, fair, but `clepe ye me Mara, that is, bittere; for Almyyti God hath fillid me greetli with bitternesse." Mara is, therefore, also a valid Middle English spelling for this Biblical name. [Mara Sutherland, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

Originally submitted as Jaret of Coventry, the name was changed at kingdom to Jaret_Coventry, but no reason was given for dropping the preposition. The name form given + of + locative is a valid English name form. We have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Jaret of Coventry, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-A]

As a name combining Old English and Latin or French is registerable... [Ældric de Logan, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

The question was raised whether the name Aidan is reasonable as an English given name, since the Gaelic name Aodhán or Áedán fell out of popular use in Ireland before the 11th C. The saint in question appears as Aidanus in Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. As Bede was known and read in England throughout period, Aidanus is certainly registerable as a period name. As Aidan is the appropriate English vernacular form of the Latin Aidanus, this name is registerable as a literary name. [Aidan Ransford, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name mixes Old English and Welsh; this is one step from period practice. [Aluara verch Morgan ap Rhys, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it uses a Gaelic name as part of a double-given name, a practice that is unattested in Gaelic cultures in period. [Elizabeth Ciarnait Ravenscroft, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-R]

Submitted as Drogo of Black Forge, the grammar of the byname marks it as a placename. However, no evidence was found of the use of the element Forge in compound English placenames. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames s.n. Forge, lists a Ralph del Forge in 1297. We have changed the byname to that form in order to register the name. [Drogo del Forge, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

While the word staunch, meaning "of a person:standing true to ones principles or purpose" is first found in 1623, precedent allows registration of such bynames even when they are found in the gray area.

[the Runt] While the sense of 'runt' probably intended by the client is clearly post-Period, the meaning dated to 1614 of 'an ignorant, uncouth, or uncultivated person' falls within our 'grey area'. (LoAR 8/91 p.12)

In this case, the intended meaning falls within our grey area (between 1600 and 1649). While this name is highly unlikely, it is registerable. [Edward the Staunch, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

As submitted, the name combines English and Gaelic in the same name, which is one step beyond period practice. [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

The locative byname phrase na Skey combines Gaelic and English in the same name phrase. This is disallowed by RfS III.1.a, which says "Each [name] phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language." We would changed the Gaelic na to the English of, but changing the language of a name element is a major change which the submitter disallows. [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

This name combines a German given name with an English byname; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Christoph of Willaston, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Joselito Leofric, this name has several problems...Furthermore, the name combines a Spanish given name with an Anglo-Saxon byname. No documentation was provided and none found for substantial contact between these two cultures. Barring such documentation, such combinations cannot be registered. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

However, as there is no evidence of substantial contact between Italy and Anglo-Saxon England, Italian and Anglo-Saxon name combinations are also unregisterable. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name mixes a Gaelic given name with an English patronymic, which is one step from period practice. [Rian Fitzpatryk, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

The byname, Mountvoir, is not a plausible placename. The submitter wished a placename meaning "mountain view" and constructed the name from parts of English names that originally derived from French placenames. However, no documentation was submitted or any found that a specific geographic feature, such as a mountain is a reasonable modifier for "view" in period placenames. A search of Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames, reveals only two placenames using the deuterotheme -voir, Belvoir, "beautiful view", and Belvedere, which is a form of Belvoir. Reaney and Wilson and Ekwall show few names using the prototheme mount- or mont and all either derived from French placenames or have a meaning other than the one desired by the submitter. Dauzat and Rostaing, Dictionnnaire étymologique des nom de lieux en France, s.n. Mons has several pages of names using the protheme Mont-. These include names formed from names of regions, names of villages, personal names, descriptive features of a mountain, military features of a mountain, but no names or themes that would support a name with the desired meaning. Barring evidence of such a name or such a naming pattern in either French or English, this name cannot be registered. [Thomas Mountvoir, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

This name mixes an English or Scots name with an Italian name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Arabella Niccola Giovanni, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

Submitted as Ælfgyfu seo hearpestre, no evidence was provided and none found that the definite article was used with Anglo-Saxon occupational bynames. We have removed the article and changed the name to Ælfgyfu_hearpestre. [Ælfgyfu hearpestre, LoAR 08/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Caol the Lucky, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

In addition, there was a fixable problem with the given name. The summarization said that the given name Magdalea was the name of the learned woman from Erasmus's dialogue The Abbot and the Learned Lady (Abbatis et eruditae). However, the photocopy provided by the submitter as well as all other references to this work found by the College show the name of the Learned Lady as Magdalia. Barring documentation of the spelling Magdalea, that form is not registerable. However, the spelling Magdalia is a Latin name found in a well-known 16th C literary work distributed on the Continent and in England. Therefore, Magdalia is registerable in contexts where an English given name is registerable. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

[Melissa] The LoI documented this name from ancient and early medieval Greece. However, Greek/English combinations were ruled unregisterable in January 2003: "No evidence was presented that England and the Byzantine Empire had significant contact in period. Lacking such evidence, a name mixing English and Byzantine Greek is not registerable." [Melissa the Poulteress, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Some questions were raised whether the byname Poulteress was registerable. The OED dates poulteress to 1723. However, the OED s.n. -ess says, "By writers of the 16th and succeeding centuries derivatives in -ess were formed very freely." The OED shows a large number of such names prior to 1600, most towards the end of the 16th C. Examples include laundresse 1550, cokysse/Cookesse 1459/1552, poetess 1530, and presbyteresse 1546 (we note this denotes the wife of a presbyter or priest). Given this pattern, Poulteress should be registerable, even though there are no dated examples prior to 1732. [Melissa the Poulteress, LOAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

This name combines an English spelling for the given name with a German byname, which is one step from period practice. [Mihil von Brandenburg, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines a Russian given name with two English bynames. Combining English and Russian is one step from period practice. [Orion Storm Bruin, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The mixture of English and German is registerable but one step from period practice. [Danyel Volker, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

The byname, of Silverleaf, is not consistent with period English placename patterns. A search through Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames shows one example of a placename using the word leaf; Whyteleaf dated to 1839. Without documentation that the theme leaf was used in period English placenames, it cannot be registered as part of a constructed English placename. The submitted documentation supports the nickname Silverleaf. To change the byname from a locative to a nickname, we would drop the preposition of. However, the submitter will not accept changes. [Elissent of Silverleaf, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-R]

The submitter proposed the form Maccuswael as a variant of Maccuswel based on the statement in Black, Surnames of Scotland, that wael is the Old English word for well or pool. In this instance, Black is mistaken. According to the OED wael is an Old English word for a ridge or wale; the Old English word for pool is wæl. As there is no evidence that the "Æ" and "ae" are interchangable in Old English, this variant is not a valid spelling for this name. Black, s.n. Maxwell lists a John de Maccuswel in 1210; we have changed his name to Donecan de Maccusel in order to register it. [Donecan de Maccuswel, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Wilhelmina von Ravensburg, all available documentation says that the given name was not found until after the 17th C. The article "Cijnsboek Oost- en Middelbeers 1542", http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Amelsvoort/cijnsb1.html, is a census taken in 1542 and written in Latin. It shows a Wilhelma filia Servatii Michaelis; we have changed the given name to this form. [Wilhelma von Ravensburg, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines English and Gaelic in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Katin inghean Neachtain, LoAR 07/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Aelfwyn Ironhair, no documentation was provided and none found for this spelling of the given name. However, Reaney and Wilson, s.n. Alwin say "Ælfwin Finche is probably identical with Ailwinus, Alwinus Finch 1168, 1173." We have changed the name to Ælfwin to match this documentation. [Ælfwin Ironhair, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The submitter noted that Ironhair was intended to mean "someone who curls her hair with a curling or crisping iron." The intended construction is verb+object; a not uncommon form of English nickname. However, this meaning is highly unlikely. While the word Cryspyngeyren (crisping or curling iron) is dated to 1483 in the OED, the verb in this construction is "crisp" or "crisping", not "iron." The OED dates the first instance of the word "iron" as a verb meaning "smooth or press with a heated flat-iron" to 1680. Before that date, the meaning is to cover with iron, or to shackle with irons. The nickname Ironhair is more likely to denote someone with strong hair or iron colored hair. [&Aelig;lfwin Ironhair, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Elizabet Alfinnsdottir von Rhine, this name has several problems. First, the byname combines the German von with the English spelling Rhine in violation of RfS III.1.a. A fully German form would be am Reine, dated to 1300 in Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. However, even with the locative in the fully German form, this name is two steps from period practice. The given name is Swedish and the byname is old Norse; this was ruled a step from period practice in 8/2002. Mixing German and Old Norse was ruled a step from period practice in 3/2004. Therefore, we have dropped the locative in order to register this name, leaving Elizabet Alfinnsdottir. [Elizabet Alfinnsdottir, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Áedán_Briscoe, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it mixes Gaelic and English in the same name. Second, there is a 600 year gap between the date of the given name and that of the byname. [Áedán de Brisco, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name combines Russian and English, which is one step from period practice. [Boris Iron Oak, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Although there is no evidence that the name Jerusha was actually used in England during our period, names from the Bible are generally registerable for languages/cultures such as English where Biblical names are found in the naming pool. This general precept has been stated time and again over the years. We note the the spelling of the given name is a Middle English spelling as well as a modern English spelling; Jerusha appears in Wycliffe's translation of the Bible from the late 14th C. Wycliffe's Bible is available at http://www.sbible.boom.ru/wyc/wycle.htm. [Jerusha Kilgour, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Some commentors questioned whether Brerecliffe was a reasonable English placename. Brerecliffe is a reasonable 16th C form of Briercliffe, the header form in Ekwall, The Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names. The OED shows several examples of brere in the 15th and 16th C. It also shows Kliffes in 1300, cliffes in 1550 and 1600, and cliffe in 1483. [Blanche Brerecliffe, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

We note that this name mixes English and Italian in a single name, which is one step from period practice. [Brenna Garrett, LoAR 06/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Nathanial Urswick, no documentation was provided and none found for this spelling of the given name or for a regular ie to ia switch in English orthography. We have changed the given name to Nathaniel to match the submitted documentation. [Nathaniel Urswick, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines Old English and Middle English in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Ceolflæd Pyper, LoAR 06/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

As documented, this name uses three given names. At the end of period, double given names are occasionally found in England, but no evidence was provided nor any found for triple given names. An alternative interpretation is that the name consists of two given names, an unmarked matronymic and an inherited surname. Because Leah is not found in use in English names until the 17th C, this cannot be an inherited surname. Unfortunately, by the time double given names are found in England, literal matronymics had fallen out of use. Dropping one of the given names would resolve both of these issues, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Rebekah Anna Leah Wynterbourne, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Metron Ariston suggested that Talon could be considered an English given name: "Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Tallon) show Henry Talon from 1160 and suggest that it is a patronymic derived from French Talon, a form of Old German Talo." However, the deriviation is a bit more specific. What Reaney and Wilson say is "Probably, as suggested by Dauzat for the French Talon a cas-régime of OG Talo." Dauzat says "représente généralement le nom simple talo, au cas régime" --"Usually representsthe simple name Talo, in the objective case." As we only register given names in the nominative case (they way they would be recorded in a signature or list), and Talon represents the objective case in both French and English, these citations do not support Talon as an English or French given name. Therefore, Talon is only documented as a given name in Welsh. [Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

FRENCH

The given name Adrienne was documented as an undated French name from Withycombe. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Unless Withycombe provides a date or period for a particular form, the form is generally modern. [Adriana Barclye of Dunotir, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

The given name Emma is documented as a French name. Mixing French and German in a single name is a step from period practice. Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch p.56, shows Hemma Tochter des Rùdolfus. We would change the given name to this form, but changing the language of a name is a major change which the submitter will not allow. [Emma Rudolfstochter, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

...However, English given names are still registerable without penalty with French bynames. [Jocosa d' Auxerre, LoAR 01/2005, Meridies-A]

This name combines French and Italian, this is one step beyond period practice. [Marion Leoncina da Susa, LoAR 01/2005, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Guillaume Jean-Pierre de Mortain, double-given names, sometimes hyphenated, are occasionally found in French names, but no evidence was submitted and none found showing the use of triple given names in France. However, by dropping the hyphen, the name we can reasonably interpret the name as a double given name, an unmarked patronymic and a locative byname. We have done this in order to register the name. [Guillaume Jean Pierre de Mortain, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found for the use of the element Lac in French placenames. While Dauzat et Rostaing, Dicitionaaire [sic] étymologique des noms de lieus en France, lists one Lac name, Lac-des-Rouges-Truites, there are no dated forms; this indicates that the placename is modern. Barring such documentation, French placenames using the element Lac modified by an adjective or adjectival phrase cannot be registered. The unmodified element Lac is a reasonable byname. [Cecilia du Lac d'Argent, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Genavieve le Fay, the submitted documentation, Colm Dubh, "Index to the Given Names in the 1292 Census of Paris" only shows the spelling Genevieve. No documentation was presented and none found that the submitted form is a reasonable variant of the documentated form. The byname was documented as la Fay. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Fay, shows de Fay as a placename, but only le Fey was [sic] a descriptive byname. Therefore, we have changed the name to Genevieve le Fey to match the documentation. [Genevieve le Fey, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Symon Cynder. no documentation was submitted and none found that cynder is a reasonable descriptive byname. The definitions found in the OED suggest it is not. The only definition we found in period that is even applicable to humans is "The 'ashes' of a dead body after cremation or (transf.) decomposition; a1547 SURREY Æneid IV. (R.), Is there no fayth Preseru'd to the cinders of Sichee?" However, we doubt this definition is applicable to a living person. The submitter indicated he was willing to change the byname to the French Cendré; this name is found in Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille. We have changed the name to Symon Cendré in order to register it. [Symon Cendré, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Welsh and French in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Maura Cethin, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

This name combines German and French forms in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Öhrens de Gant, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-A]

As a name combining Old English and Latin or French is registerable... [Ældric de Logan, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

As documented, this name contained two given names and no byname. Such a name is not registerable via RfS III.2.a "Personal names - a personal name must contain a given name and at least one byname." Boke suggested that this might be a given name and an unmarked metronymic. Her article "French Names from Paris 1421, 1423, and 1438" shows what appear to be several unmarked metronymics, including Heloys, Kathelin, and Magdelene. This shows a pattern of unmarked metronymics in French during the 15th C, making this name registerable. [Amelot Lisette, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Enricx Bongnier, several commenters questioned whether Enricx was the nominative form of this name. The name is found in various chansons as both Enric and Enricx. Since Enric appears unambiguously in the nominative case, while it is not always clear whether Enricx is in the nominative or the genitive case, we have changed the name to Enric Bongnier to ensure that the grammar is correct. [Enric Bongnier, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Geneviève de Barbarel, Morlet Dictionaire Étymologique des Noms de Famille says that Barbarel is a diminutive of barbier, "barber", while Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames indicate it is a matronymic based on the name Barbara. There is no evidence to suggest it is a locative that should appear with the preposition de. Therefore we have dropped the preposition de. [Geneviève Barberel, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

The byname, Mountvoir, is not a plausible placename. The submitter wished a placename meaning "mountain view" and constructed the name from parts of English names that originally derived from French placenames. However, no documentation was submitted or any found that a specific geographic feature, such as a mountain is a reasonable modifier for "view" in period placenames. A search of Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames, reveals only two placenames using the deuterotheme -voir, Belvoir, "beautiful view", and Belvedere, which is a form of Belvoir. Reaney and Wilson and Ekwall show few names using the prototheme mount- or mont and all either derived from French placenames or have a meaning other than the one desired by the submitter. Dauzat and Rostaing, Dictionnnaire étymologique des nom de lieux en France, s.n. Mons has several pages of names using the protheme Mont-. These include names formed from names of regions, names of villages, personal names, descriptive features of a mountain, military features of a mountain, but no names or themes that would support a name with the desired meaning. Barring evidence of such a name or such a naming pattern in either French or English, this name cannot be registered. [Thomas Mountvoir, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as Véronique Tortesmains la Parmentiresse, in France in period, literal occupational bynames are written in all lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Véronique Tortesmains la parmentiresse. [Véronique Tortesmains la parmentiresse, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name mixes a French given name with an Italian byname, which is one step beyond period practice. [Dalia d'Auria, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Cécile de Lorraine, the given name was documented from Withycombe as the French form of Cecilia. However, Withycombe shows this as the modern French form, not a period form. The documentation showed the form Cecille from Aryanhwy ferch [sic] Catmael "Names from a 1587 Tax Roll from Provins." We have, therefore, changed the name to Cecille to match the submitted documentation. [Cecille de Lorraine, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

Listed on the LoI as Quataryna de Montpelier, the forms showed Quataryna de Montpelher. Montpelher is the modern Occitan name for Montpellier. The Medieval Music and Arts Foundation, http://www.medieval.org, lists a Gormonda de Montpelher, Comte de Foix, as writing a siventes during the age of the troubadours. This is sufficient evidence to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt that this is an appropriate period name for this place. Therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Quataryna de Montpelher, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Many commenters noted that Gilbert was documented as a given name, but de Gilbert was formed like a placename. Dauzat Dictionnaire étmologique des nomes et prénoms de France, s.n. De-, notes "I, préoisutuib (Nord et Midi) indiquant: l'origine; la relation ou l'appartenance; la filiation". Loosely translation this says, "De-, preposition indicating origin, the relation of an appurtenance, filial relationship." Dauzat gives several names following this pattern, including Defleur, Degeorges, and Deguillaume. Aryanhwy merch Catmael, "French Surnames from Paris 1421, 1423, & 1438" also contains examples of this formation, including de Fleur and de Omer. Therefore, de Gilbert follows a period French pattern for forming patronymics. [Tristan de Gilbert, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

There was some question of whether Savinne or Savine was an appropriate form of this name. While Savinne is a more usual form, Savine is a reasonable form. In Colm Dubh "An Index to the Given Names in the Paris Census of 1292", there are 14 unambiguous examples of masculine names ending in "n" with corresponding feminine forms. Of these, five are formed by simply adding an "e" to the end of the name, including Asceline [sic]/Asceline and Jehan/Jehane. [Savine de Cressy, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

A single example in an extensive regional history of period contact, limited to a single royal marriage with no lasting dynasty on the Russian end is not significant cultural contact. Significant cultural contact would require evidence ongoing and extensive contact in one or more of the following areas: direct trade, diplomacy, travel, colonization, or other cultural contact. RfS III.1 says "Languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages." Because substantial contact between French and Russian cultures is lacking, French/Russian names can no longer be registered. Any French/Russian names considered after December, 2004 will be returned. [CL 06/2004]

Submitted as Wilhelus le Cassé, the summary documented le Cassé from Dauzet, Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et Prenoms de France and said it was "a locative byname [sic], "a man from Cassé," a region in southwestern France." However, this isn't what Dauzat says. Instead, this appears to be a toponymic byname for a man who has oak trees growing on his property. Morlet, Dictionnaire étymologique des Noms de Famille also shows the forms Delcasse and Lecasse. Both Morlet and Dauzet also show a second derivation for the name Casse, a designator for a maker and seller of saucepans ( en anc.fr.; désigne le marchand de casseroles.) Larousse, Nouveau dictionnaire étymologique dates casse, meaning casserole to 1341. Therefore, we are changing this name to Wilhelus le Casse to match the form in Larousse. [Wilhelus le Casse, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Metron Ariston suggested that Talon could be considered an English given name: "Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Tallon) show Henry Talon from 1160 and suggest that it is a patronymic derived from French Talon, a form of Old German Talo." However, the deriviation is a bit more specific. What Reaney and Wilson say is "Probably, as suggested by Dauzat for the French Talon a cas-régime of OG Talo." Dauzat says "représente généralement le nom simple talo, au cas régime" --"Usually representsthe simple name Talo, in the objective case." As we only register given names in the nominative case (they way they would be recorded in a signature or list), and Talon represents the objective case in both French and English, these citations do not support Talon as an English or French given name. Therefore, Talon is only documented as a given name in Welsh. [Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

GAELIC -- Irish and Scottish

This entry mixes Old or Middle Irish Gaelic with Early Modern Irish Gaelic; this is one step beyond period practice. [Ciarán mac Gaoithín, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Caitlín ingen ui Dálaig, no documentation was submitted and none found that the spelling of the given name, Caitlín, was found in period. Barring such documentation, this spelling cannot be registered. [Caitilín ingen ui Dálaig, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Sáerlaith ingen Rúadán, the patronymic is in the nominative case rather than the required genitive case. The correct form is Sáerlaith ingen Rúadáin; we have made this change. [Sáerlaith ingen Rúadáin, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

There was some question whether Baróid was a period Gaelicization for this surname. The Annals of the Four Masters entry for 1440, part 11 has an Antriu Bariod; the same man is named in the Annals of Loch Cé as Andriu Baroid. The Annals of Inisfallen 1281.10 lists a Williem Baroid. Therefore, Baróid is a reasonable Early Modern Irish surname. [Damaris Baróid, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

The name combines English and Gaelic; this is one step from period practice. [Damaris Baróid, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Róisi MacCracken, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Róise MacCracken, no documentation was submitted and none found to support Róise as a form of the name Róis or Róisi. We have changed the name to Róisi MacCracken; the spelling Róisi is documented to 1585 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan, "Index to Names in Irish Annals." [Róisi MacCracken, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Anglicized Gaelic; this is one step from period practice. [Máire O Halowrane, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

This name mixes Welsh and Gaelic; such combinations are unregisterable. Various investigations have been made about substantial contact between Ireland and Wales in period and, despite my expectations, none has been found to indicate substantial contact between Gaelic speakers and Welsh speakers. Barring such documentation, we cannot in good conscience overturn this precedent. [Saige inghean Ghiolla Phádraig, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-R]

Submitted as Ainfean inghean Bheoaodh, the spelling Ainfean is a post-period spelling. Precedent states:

The spelling Ainfean is the last form listed in the header for Ainbthen in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 19). The spelling shift from "bh" to "f" is typical of the shift from Early Modern Gaelic to Modern Gaelic around 1700. Therefore, as we have no evidence that Ainfean is a period spelling, we have changed the given name to a period form. [Ainbthen inghean Dubhghaill, 11/01, A-Meridies]

Ó Corráin and Maguire, s.n. Ainbthen, show Ainbthine as the Early Modern Gaelic form of this name. In addition, Gaelic grammar requires that the patronymic appear in the genitive case; as submitted it is in the nominative case. We have changed the name to Ainbthine inghean Bheoaodha in order to register it and to correct the grammar. [Ainbhthine inghean Bheoaodha, LoAR 12/2005, Caid-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in a single name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Caitríona of Lindisfarne, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Ainmere ó Glass...In addition, Gaelic grammar requires that the patroymic be in the genitive case. Therefore, we have changed the name to Ainmere ua Glaiss to correct the grammar. [Ainmere ua Glaiss, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Kilian Ó Conaill, the anglicization Killian and by extension Kilian were ruled unregisterable in September 2003:

Caitilín ni Killane. Name (see RETURNS for device). Submitted as Caitlín ni Killian, there were some issues with this name. No documentation was provided and none was found to support Killian as a plausible Anglicized Irish form in period. Woulfe (s.n. Ó Cilleáin) dates the Anglicized Irish form O Killane to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Woulfe (s.n. Ó Cillín also dates the Anglicized Irish forms O Killine and O Killen to the same time period. Based on these examples, registerable forms of this byname would include ni Killane, ni Killine, and ni Killen. As the first of these forms is closest to the submitted ni Killian, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [LoAR 09/2003 Trimaris-A]"

We have changed the given name to Cillíne, the Early Modern Irish form of this name, in order to register it. Cillíne is found in Ó Corrain [sic] and Maguire, Irish Names, s.n. Cilléne. [Cillíne Ó Conaill, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name combines Scots and Gaelic in a single name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Galen MacColmáin, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Ailill mac Ferchair Uí Diarmait, the second patronymic is in the nominative case rather than the required genitive case. The earliest example of this name used as a patronymic we have found is in The Annals of the Four Masters where we find Diarmait Clereach mac Corbmaic Meic Diarmata. While this name appears in an Early Modern Irish context, the spelling of the given name Diarmait is the same in both Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish. Therefore, Diarmata should be the appropriate genitive spelling for Middle Irish; we have made that change. [Ailill mac Ferchair Uí Diarmata, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

The name mixes Irish and English; this is one step beyond period practice. [Béoán Freborn, LoAR 12/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Nuala inghean uí Chaoinleáin, Chaoinleáin is a modern form of this name. Barring examples of this spelling in period, it cannot be registered. [Nuala inghean uí Chaoindealbheáin [sic], LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-A]

This name mixes the Gaelic Sisuile with the English Butler; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Sisuile Butler, LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-A]

As registered, the name mixes Gaelic and English, which is one step from period practice. [Óengus Minogue, LoAR 12/2004, Outlands-A]

Furthermore, no documentation was submitted and none found that the Gaelic diminutive Cáit was used in period; submitted documentation showed it as a modern diminutive for this name. Barring documentation that this diminutive was found in period, it is not registerable. [Cáit Roche, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

The name Finnéadan appears to be a unique name for a legendary character. Ó Corr´in and Maguire, Irish Names, says of this name "Finnétan was a lady of the Déisi and ancestress of many nobles of Ossory." When Ó Corráin and Maguire provide only information about a single bearer with no other information, this usually means that the person so described is the only known bearer of the name. We have been unable to find this name in any other source which strengthens the argument that this name is unique. Barring another example of this name, it cannot be registered. [Finnéadan ingen Ruadhan, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Submitted as Raynagh Binnech ingen Griffyn, the patronymic phrase combines the Gaelic particle ingen with the English or Welsh patronymic Griffyn in violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency. The introduction to Heather Rose Jones, "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century," says that the Red Book is a collection of Latin documents written by an English speaker; while the names represent English, Irish, and Welsh names, they are written in Latin or English. Therefore, we have dropped the Gaelic patronymic particle in order to register the name. [Raynagh Griffyn, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name mixes an Irish given name with an English surname; this is one step beyond period practice. [Tadhg Fairbairn, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Dearan Wylde, Dearan was proposed as a given name based on the patronymic Ó Dearáin, which Woulfe, Irish Names and Surnames, glosses as "descendant of Dearan." However, Woulfe defines "Dearan" as "great". No independent evidence was found that Dearan is a period given name rather than a descriptive name. Precedent, most recently confirmed in February 2003, says:

No documentation was found that Siridean was used as a given name in period.

Siridean was submitted based on the Gaelic surname form Ó Sirideáin found in MacLysaght's The Surnames of Ireland (s.n. (O) Sheridan). However, not all Mac and Ó surnames derive from given names. Some derive from descriptive bynames. For example, the surname Ó Balbháin (Woulfe, p. 433 s.n. Ó Balbháin) means 'descendant of the stammerer'. Metron Ariston describes the uncertainty regarding the origin of this name:

There has been a great deal of controversy over the etymology of Sheridan and its Irish antecedent over the years. Some people state that the putative Ó Sirideáin meant "son of the Searcher", i.e., is an attributive patronymic rather than a patronymic formed from a given name. Others insist it must have been derived from a rare given name (based largely on its use as a patronymic as far as I can tell). The Clan Sheridan web site itself (www.longfordtourism.com/genealogy/sheridan.html) notes "O' Shiridean literally translates as decendants of Sheridan the meaning of which is uncertain." I was not able to find a clear instance of its use as a given name (as opposed to a portion of a patronymic) in period [...].

Lacking evidence that Siridean is plausible as a given name in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable as a given name.

The same situation applies to the name Dearan. [Deran Wylde, LoAR 11/2004, Ansteorra-A]

The name combines Gaelic and English, which is one step from period practice. [Deran Wylde, LoAR 11/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Flenn ingen Baldwin, as submitted, the name has several problems. First, the patronymic phrase combines Gaelic and English in violation of RfS III.1.a. Linguistic consistency. We have dropped the patronymic marker to make this name phrase registerable. [Faoileann Baldwin, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Faolan MacAodh, the patronymic particle was typically separated from the patronymic in period Gaelic names and written in lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Faolan mac_Aodh. [Faolan mac Aodh, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

Finally, Aelfwyn is not a reasonable variant of the Old English name Ælfwyn. There is no evidence that the character Æ was interchangable with AE in either Old English or Middle English. [Aelfwyn the Irresponsible, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-R]

Submitted as Gleann nam Feorag Dubh, Canton of, the submitted documentation for names contructed with the pattern "toponym+particle+animal+color" had the color in the genitive case. We have changed the name to Gleann nam Feoragh Dhuibhe to correct the grammar. [Gleann nam Feorag Dhuibhe, Canton of, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Liadan an Shionnach, the documentation showed no examples of this byname that included the article. Therefore, we have changed the name to Liadan_Shionnach to match the documentation. [Liadan Shionnach, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Seamus mac Duibhne, it is customary in Scottish Gaelic for patronymics beginning with D to lenite. We have changed the spelling to Seamus mac Dhuibhne to correct the grammar. [Seamus mac Dhuibne, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

This name uses a double given name with a Scots rendering of a Gaelic name. This is one step beyond period practice. [George Frank McKenzie, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

This name uses a feminine given name with a masculine Gaelic patronymic. In Gaelic, the patronymic particle must match the gender of the given name. [Sarah MacDhai, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-R]

Submitted as Finndabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, no documentation was provided and none found for the name Finndabhair. The cited documentation was for Finnabair/Fionnabhair. Because the patronymic is an Early Modern Irish form, we have changed the given name to Fionnabhair, the Early Modern Irish form. [Fionnabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Connor mac Lommán, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it combines a post-1200 Anglicized given name with a Middle Gaelic byname; as with Old and Middle (pre-1200) and Early Modern Gaelic (post 1200), this is also one step from period practice. [Connor mac Lomáin, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

The question was raised whether the name Aidan is reasonable as an English given name, since the Gaelic name Aodhán or Áedán fell out of popular use in Ireland before the 11th C. The saint in question appears as Aidanus in Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. As Bede was known and read in England throughout period, Aidanus is certainly registerable as a period name. As Aidan is the appropriate English vernacular form of the Latin Aidanus, this name is registerable as a literary name. [Aidan Ransford, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Sárnat ingen mhic Caille, the patronymic combines a Middle Irish particle, ingen, with an Early Modern Irish particle, mhic. We have changed the name to an all Middle Irish form, Sárnat ingen meic Caille. [Sárnat ingen meic Caille, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it uses a Gaelic name as part of a double-given name, a practice that is unattested in Gaelic cultures in period. [Elizabeth Ciarnait Ravenscroft, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-R]

Submitted as Séigíne inghean uí Draighneain, the submitted documentation shows the patronymic as Draighneáin. In addition, Irish grammar requires that the patronyic be lenited, giving inghean uí Dhraighneáin. We have made these changes. [Séigíne inghean uí Dhraighneáin, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Liadan inghean Aodhan, Gaelic grammar requires the patronymic be in the genitive form. We have changed the name to Liadan inghean Aodhain to correct the grammar. [Liadan inghean Aodhain, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

This name mixes a Gaelic given name with an Anglicized Gaelic patronymic; this is one step from period practice. [Nechtan MacIver, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

In addition, the patronymic is a standard modern spelling, not a period spelling. The Gaelic patronymic was the form shown in Black, The Surnames of Scotland; unless he states otherwise, these are modern forms. In some cases, the modern Gaelic form is consistent with earlier forms. In this case, though, the closest Gaelic form is the Early Modern Gaelic (1200-1700) mac Domhnaill, which is dated to 1529 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Index of Names in Irish Annals". [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

The locative byname phrase na Skey combines Gaelic and English in the same name phrase. This is disallowed by RfS III.1.a, which says "Each [name] phrase must be grammatically correct according to the usage of a single language." We would changed the Gaelic na to the English of, but changing the language of a name element is a major change which the submitter disallows. [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

As submitted, the name combines English and Gaelic in the same name, which is one step beyond period practice. [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

This name mixes a Gaelic given name with an English patronymic, which is one step from period practice. [Rian Fitzpatryk, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Sadb ingen S.uibne, the s. is intended to represent a punctum delens (a letter in Gaelic with a dot over it). This indicates that the letter is lenited. In the standard transcription of such letters in the Roman alphabet, lenition is shown by placing an 'h' after the letter that is lenited. We have changed the name to Sadb ingen Shuibhne to make the transcription system consistent for the Roman alphabet. The submitter is welcome to use the form Suibne with the punctum delens over the S when writing her name, if she wishes. [Sadb ingen Shuibne, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

Submitted as Brigit Camshrón, Gaelic grammar requires a descriptive byname such as Camshrón to lenite when used with a feminine given name; therefore, we have changed the name to Brigit Chamshrón to correct its grammar. [Brigit Chamshrón, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Caitrina inghean Anndrais, the submitter requested authenticity for an unspecified language/culture and accepted only minor changes. Anndra and Anndras are modern Gaelic forms of this name. Barring evidence that these spellings were used in period, they are not registerable. [Caitrina inghean Aindriasa, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Sadb ingen Thuathail, the submitter requested authenticity for 10th C Irish and accepted only minor changes. In Middle Irish Gaelic names (900-1200), names starting with T did not lenite when following words ending in the letter n. We have removed the lenition and changed this to Sadb ingen Tuathail. [Sadb ingen Tuathail, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Caol the Lucky, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name combines a feminine given name with a Gaelic masculine patronymic byname. Gaelic patronymic bynames are literal; the particle mac means "son" and is used only with masculine given names. The particle inghean or ingen means "daughter" and is used with feminine names. An appropriate feminine form of the byname is inghean an Gabhann. Although conceptually the change of particle from mac to inghean is minor, it significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name, which are the hallmarks of a major change. As the submitter will not accept major changes, this name must be returned. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

This name combines Scots and Scottish Gaelic orthographies in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Muriel ingen Gille Crist, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

We note that the patronymic Gille Crist is a pre-1200 form; lenition is not spelled out with the letter G during this period. [Muriel ingen Gille Crist, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

There was some discussion whether Codlatach, 'sleepy', was a word found in period. MacBain, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, s.n. cadal (sleep) says "Irish codladh, Old Irish cotlud." A search of CELT, http://www.ucc.ie/celt, finds examples of "cotlud" in Old/Middle Irish contexts and "codladh" in Early Modern Irish contexts. Codlatach is a reasonable adjectival form of Codladh; therefore, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt and registering this name as submitted. [Seán Codlatach, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

...no evidence was found that the construction "name maol+name was used in period...[Eadan maol, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Scots orthographies; this is one step from period practice. [Mairghread of Herth, LoAR 08/2004, Drachenwald-A]

Submitted as Uilliam Mear mac Fhaoláin, a name starting with the letter F does not lenite when used in a masculine patronymic. We have, therefore, dropped the lenition, leaving Uilliam Mear mac Faoláin. [Uilliam Mear mac Faoláin, LoAR 08/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Áine ingen Flaithimhin, the patronymic combines an Early Modern Gaelic patronymic with a Middle Gaelic particle, such combinations are not registerable. The correct particle in this case is inghean. In addition, Early Modern Gaelic grammar requires feminine patronymics starting with the letter F lenite. We have changed tthe name to Áine inghean Fhlaithimhin to reflect these requirements. [Áine inghean Fhlaithimhin, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines English and Gaelic in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Katin inghean Neachtain, LoAR 07/2004, An Tir-A]

This name combines Old Irish Gaelic with Early Modern Irish Gaelic, which is one step from period practice. [Báethán mac Dhuibh, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name mixes Scots and Gaelic, which is one step from period practice. [Fearghus Cochrane, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Scots in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Con O'Quyrke, LoAR 07/2004, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Áedán_Briscoe, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it mixes Gaelic and English in the same name. Second, there is a 600 year gap between the date of the given name and that of the byname. [Áedán de Brisco, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Donn na Gall Ui Neill, no documentation was submitted and none found for using the definite article na with the descriptive byname Gall. The submitter explicitly accepted changing the given+descriptive names to the name Donngall, so we have registered this name as Donngall Ui Neill. [Donngall Ui Neill, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Ailis inghean Mhairghread, Gaelic grammar requires the metronymic be in the genitive case. Rowel provides two possible genetive forms Mairghrege and Mairgreicce and notes that the former is more likely based on Early Modern Irish Gaelic spelling rules. We have, therefore, changed the name to Ailis inghean Mhairghrege to comply with Gaelic grammer. [Ailis inghean Mhairghrege, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name was returned in August 2003; in the submission Mealla was described as a saint's name, but no documentation was provided and none found showing this. This submitted has provided citations from several sources, including The Catholic Encylopedia for saint's [sic] of this name. Therefore, the name, in some form, is registerable. The spelling Mealla is modern, but consistent with Early Modern Irish spellings. [Mealla Caimbeul, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name was originally submitted as Caoimhin MacAindriú but it was changed at kingdom to Cáemgen MacAndreas. The submitter request a name authentic to Irish language/culture. As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal.

As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal. First, the spelling Caoimhin is a modern spelling. Barring documentation for this spelling in period, it cannot be registered. Rowel notes the form Cáemgen referring to the 7th C saint. She also notes "I can find no use of it after the 7th C saint. Instead, I find forms like <Giolla Caoimhghin> (Four Masters, B, M1159.3) and <Maol Caoimhghin> (Four Masters, B, M1086.1). Note that the Four Masters use predominently Early Modern Gaelic (c1200-c1700) spellings." This is not unusual for the name of an important saint; in Irish culture, names of saint's were often considered too holy to use and instead devotional forms meaning "servent [sic] of saint's name" were used. However, saint's names were generally part of the Irish naming pool, the bare saint's name, Cáemgen or Caoimhghin are also registerable. [Caoimhghin MacAindriú, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-A]

This name was originally submitted as Caoimhin MacAindriú but it was changed at kingdom to Cáemgen MacAndreas. The submitter request a name authentic to Irish language/culture. As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal.

The documentation sited for the patronymic shows the name Andreas in a Latin context, not in a Gaelic context. Rowel notes, "The first example of Andreas I've found in the annals is in 1249 (Four Masters, C, M1249.2). The earliest example I've found of Aindriú [the Early Modern Irish Gaelic spelling for this name] was in 1318." [Caoimhghin MacAindriú, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-A]

Submitted as Cano MagFhionnghail, we have changed it to Cano mag_Fhionnghail. By precedent "In period, Mac was not connected to the patronym in Gaelic. We have added a space to follow documented period examples. [Gavine Mac Cormaic, 12/2003 LoAR, A-Trimaris] [Cano mag Fhionnghail, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

There is usually a space between the patronymic and the particle, so we have changed the name to Ioan Ó_Muirgheasa of Strikkenwoode. [Ioan Ó Muirgheasa of Strikkenwoode, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Cairistiona inghean Choinnaig, the patronymic was a hypothetical genitive form of Cainneach. The Annals of the Four Masters (B), entry M1098.24 lists Mac Giolla Choinnigh I Urdhain; we have changed the name to Cairistiona inghean Choinnigh to match this documented Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. [Cairistiona inghean Choinnigh, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Coinneach Micha Moray, the element Micha has several problems. First, no documentation was submitted and none found that Micha is found in period. The website from which this name was documented is an index to a book, Jewish Surnames from Prague (15th - 18th Centuries) by Alexander Beider. While the book gives dates, the index does not; so, we don't know whether this name was found in the 15th C or in the 18th. Furthermore, and more important, no documentation was submitted and none found for substantial contact between Bohemia and Scotland in period. Barring such documentation, combining Bohemian with either Scots or Gaelic in the same name is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered this name as Coinneach Moray. In that form, the name is still one step from period practice, but it is registerable. [Coinneach Moray, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

Submitted as Caitlin O'Sullivan, Caitlin is a modern form of this name and, by precedent, not registerable:

Caitilín ni Killane. Submitted as Caitlín ni Killian, there were some issues with this name. No documentation was provided and none was found that the form Caitlín was used in period, though evidence was found of it as a modern name. We have changed the given name to the documented Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Caitilín in order to register this name. [Trimaris-A, LoAR 09/2003]

[Catyln O'Sullivan, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Tearlach mac Conchobair, the name uses the modern Gaelic given name. "Tearlach is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name. Lacking evidence that it was used in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable." [Tearlach McIntosh, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]." The name also combines a modern Irish Gaelic given name with a Middle Irish Gaelic patronymic; even if the given name were registerable, a combination of a modern Irish name and a Middle Irish name is not registerable due to the temporal disparity between the parts. The Middle Irish Gaelic form Tairdelbach is dated to 1086 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Dated Names Found in Ó Corráin and Maguire's Irish Names." Therefore, we have changed this name to Tairdelbach mac Conchobair, a fully Middle Irish Gaelic form. [Tairdelbach mac Conchobair, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

It is not clear whether Calum is a period given name. However, Black, Surnames of Scotland, s.n. Gillecallum says, "G. Gille Caluim, 'servant of Calum,' i.e. Columba. A very popular personal name in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries." Based on this we have decided to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Calum Ó Moráin, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

No evidence was provided and none found that a name meaning "Gathering of the Nine Expectations" follows a pattern found in period Scottish placenames. The documentation cited examples of placenames using Aonach from Watson, The Celtic Placenames of Scotland; these examples include an t-Aonach "the fair", Blàr an Aonaich "plain of the fair", and Aonachán probably "little fair". None use an abstract emotional designation such as "of the Nine Expectations." According to Johnston, The Place-names of Scotland, Gaelic placenames are almost always simple descriptives, "the majority of Celtic names give either the simplest possible description of the site named, or describe some prominent feature, or else the colouring or appearance of it as it strikes the eye." This is an excellent maxim to keep in mind when forming Gaelic placenames. [Aonach na Naoi n-Duileach, Shire of, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-R]

Submitted as Ailleann ingen Fhiodhbhuidhe, the byname uses the Old and Middle Irish form of the patronymic particle with an Early Modern Irish Gaelic form of the patronymic itself. Therefore, we changed the particle to inghean to render the byname phrase fully in Early Modern Irish Gaelic. [Ailleann inghean Fhiodhbhuidhe, LoAR 06/2004, Outlands-A]

This name combines Welsh and Irish Gaelic in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Siôn MacDougall, LoAR 06/2004, Trimaris-A]

GAELIC -- anglicized

Although the given name Kilian is a modern Anglicization of the Gaelic Cillín, no documentation was provided showing it is a period Anglicization. [Kilian Macraith, LoAR 01/2005, Ansteorra-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Anglicized Gaelic; this is one step from period practice. [Máire O Halowrane, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

This name combines an English given name with an Anglicized Irish patronymic; this is one step from period practice. [Gareth McGilchrist, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name mixes a Gaelic given name with an Anglicized Gaelic patronymic; this is one step from period practice. [Nechtan MacIver, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

The name combines a Welsh name with an Anglicized Gaelic byname, which is one step from period practice. [Tegwaret MacAuley, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name uses two given names with an Anglicized Irish byname; this is one step beyond period practice. [Mary Kate O'Malley, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Welsh and Anglicized Gaelic combinations are registerable although a step from period practice...[Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

GENERIC IDENTIFIERS

[Company of Gesters.] The name Company of Gesters is a generic identifier; it cannot be reserved by registration to a single branch. The test for whether something is a generic identifier is whether multiple groups would reasonably have a group of people that would use the unvarnished term Gesters. The OED defines gester as a professional reciter or singer of romances; the word jester is derived from it. The word Gester, therefore, is the name of an occupation which could be plied and applied by groups of entertainers in any SCA branch. Therefore, Company of Gesters is generic and may not be registered to a single group. [Stonemarche, Barony of, LoAR 09/2004, East-R]

[Worshipful Company of Broiders.] The designation Worshipful Company of Broiders was suggested as the designation for this badge. However, Broider is a verb meaning "to embroider." Therefore, it is inappropriate as the descriptive element for a guild name, generic or not. A properly generic descriptor here would be Company of Broiderers or Broiderers Guild.

Which gets us to the main question -- is Worshipful Company of X, where X is a generic descriptive element a generic identifier? The January 1993 coverletter had this to say on the subject "A better term might be "job-description": a simple declaration of the intended use of the badge...So long as the badge is associated with a purely functional name, it's [the name] neither checked for conflict during submission or protected from conflict afterwards." The addition of the adjective Worshipful lifts this out of the realm of purely functional, even through the adjective is part of the designator and not part of the descriptive element. [Lochac, Kingdom of, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

[Boke Herawde] Reluctantly, I must declare this title too generic to register. One of the common definitions of generic in the OED is " Of a name or designation (as for some type of product): that is used generally for the article, etc., that it describes, and is therefore not admissible as a trade mark; not protected by legislation, non-proprietary." This definition closely fits the common SCA term "book herald," a term near and dear to the hearts of many research heralds or, as I heard from many of them when this title was discussed, book heralds. [Northshield, Kingdom of, LoAR 07/2004, Northshield-R]

GERMAN

Submitted as Timm der Bährherz, the intended meaning of Bährherz is "bear-heart." Other examples of "bear" bynames, Bärenfeller and Bärensteiner, suggest that Bärenherz would be the appropriate formation for this name. In addition, no documentation was submitted for "bear" bynames in German including the article. Therefore, we have changed this name to Timm_Bärenherz. [Timm Bärenherz, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

The given name Emma is documented as a French name. Mixing French and German in a single name is a step from period practice. Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch p.56, shows Hemma Tochter des Rùdolfus. We would change the given name to this form, but changing the language of a name is a major change which the submitter will not allow. [Emma Rudolfstochter, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

No documentation was presented that Zwickel is a German placename; the submitted documentation indicates that it is a descriptive byname. However, her husband's registered name is Kollack von Zweckel, so the byname is grandfathered to his spouse and immediate family. [Rebecca von Zweckel, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Valentin Lieme, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th-15th C German and accepted minor changes. The form Lieme is undated; no evidence was given and none found that it is a period spelling or consistent with period spellings. Schwarz, Sudetendeutsche Familiennamen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, lists a Peter Lyme in 1544. We have changed the name to Valentin Lyme to make the name registerable and partially compy with his request for authenticity. [Valentin Lyme, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines German and English in the same name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Hette Arnold, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Siegfried Waffenschiemdt, no documentation was submitted and none found that Schiemdt is a word at all. The modern word for "smith" in German is Schmiedt. We have changed the byname to Waffenschmiedt, the header form in Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen. [Siegfried Waffenschmiedt, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name combines German and French forms in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Öhrens de Gant, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Aveline Karnatz, the locative byname Karnatz, was documented as a header form in Bahlow, German Names. Bahlow gives no dates for this name, nor does he suggest that it was found in period. The earliest documented form of the name the College was able to find was dated to 1704. Without documentation of this name in period, it cannot be registered. We have substituted the placename Carnyn, dated to 1346 in Brechenmacher Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen. This name is similar, although not identical in sound, to the submitted Karnatz. [Aveline Carnyn, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

This name combines a German given name with an English byname; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Christoph of Willaston, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name combines an Italian given name with a German byname; this is one step from period practice. [Damiano Faust, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Melchior auf Missen, the documentation was unclear as to what type of byname Missen was or whether it was a period byname. However, one of the miniatures in Codex Manesee [sic], http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/cpg848, is titled Margrave Heinrich von Misen. We have changed the name to Melchior von Misen to match the documentation. [Melchior von Misen, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

The given name was documented from a book of Russian names, but it is, in fact, a German name. Metron Ariston notes "One of the most famous encyclopedists of the medieval period was Hraban Maur whose name usually appears in the Latinized form Hrabanus Maurus, abbot of Fulda and archbishop of Mainz. I strongly suspect that the listing in Moroshkin from which Goldschmidt draws refers to him since it is dated to 847 when he was elected archbishop of Mainz." Wickenden includes names of foreigners found in Russian contexts, so it is highly likely that this is a German name found in a Russian document. Therefore, this name mixes German and Russian in a single name, which is one step from period practice. [Hraban Peterov, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines an English spelling for the given name with a German byname, which is one step from period practice. [Mihil von Brandenburg, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found of a pattern of usage for the deuterotheme -lautern. Although the documentation included the period placename Kaiserslautern, this was the sole example of this usage located so far. This does not support a pattern, nor does it support givenname+lautern as a byname or placename pattern. We would change the byname to von Lautern, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Wilhelm Ludwig von Rabeslautern, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

No evidence was submitted and none found that German locative bynames were formed from the names of mountains in period. While we note Berg was used as a topographic byname, this is not the same as using the name of a specific mountain to form a byname. Furthermore, no documentation was presented and none found that Zugspitz was the name for this mountain in period. To register Zugspitzer, we would need documentation of both the specific mountain name and the pattern of forming bynames from names of mountains. If such documentation were presented, we note that Zugspitzer would be the expected form for this byname. [Wilhelm Zugspitzer, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The mixture of English and German is registerable but one step from period practice. [Danyel Volker, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

[Haus Gebrochen Brüke.] No documentation was provided and none found that this household name followed a German naming pattern for a group of people. The name was justified as a housename. However, as Orle notes, housenames are typically derived from objects with common names painted on a house: "German house names follow the pattern of animals, trees, plants, a couple of mythical creatures and some common objects like sack, bucket, pot, star, or plow. Most are plants or animals." Neither Brechenmacher nor Bahlow's German Names show any surnames using Gebrochen, (broken). [Olaf Wulfbrandt, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-R]

This name combines German and Russian; this is one step from period practice. [Leta von Golsar, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

This combines a Latinized Dutch and German byname in a single name, but such combinations are not considered a step from period practice.[Wilhelma von Ravensburg, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Elizabet Alfinnsdottir von Rhine, this name has several problems. First, the byname combines the German von with the English spelling Rhine in violation of RfS III.1.a. A fully German form would be am Reine, dated to 1300 in Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. However, even with the locative in the fully German form, this name is two steps from period practice. The given name is Swedish and the byname is old Norse; this was ruled a step from period practice in 8/2002. Mixing German and Old Norse was ruled a step from period practice in 3/2004. Therefore, we have dropped the locative in order to register this name, leaving Elizabet Alfinnsdottir. [Elizabet Alfinnsdottir, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The name was documented from Brechnmacher as a header form. In most cases, header forms are plausible for period and so are registerable. However, precedent (most notably regarding modern forms in Ó Corráin & Maguire) has ruled that header forms which are modern may not be registerable. (This has been handled on a case by case basis.) Tonnemacher is a modern form of this name; period forms listed in Brechenmacher and Bahlow include Tunenbynder in 1519 and Tunninbinder in 1378. Certainly, for an authentic name, we would recommend substituting one of these forms. However, the header form, Tonnemacher does appear to be formed in a period fashion. A scan through Bahlow shows a number of period names that use the deuterotheme -macher, including panczermacher in 1431 (s.n. Panzer), Pulvermacher in 1493 (s.n. Pulver) and Brechenmaker 1550 (s.n. Brechenmacher). [Laurenz Tonnemacher, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

The placename, von Lüchtringen is problematic. No documentation was provided showing that this place existed in period or that this was a reasonable period spelling. However, the website www.luechtringen.de lists the history of this place going back to 822. This page mentions that in 900 the place is called Lutringi with a Lambert von Lüchtringen in 1224. While such websites are unreliable as primary documentation, combined with the Bahlow Deutschelands Geographish Namen citation this is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. [Wolfgang Eber von Lüchtringen, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Gregor of Eisenberg, the forms showed Gregor von Eisenberg. As von is an appropriate preposition in a German name for a German locative byname, we have returned this name to the originally submitted form. [Gregor von Eisenberg, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

No evidence was submitted and none found that Kellerwald a period placename or that it was constructed according to period German place name or forest name patterns. Blaeu's Atlas, published in 1635, contains a map showing the area where the Nationalpark Kellerwald Ederseete is located. However, scanning the maps of Germany from Blaeu's Atlas revealed no placename Kellerwald in that area. Nor does this name match a pattern of forest names. A scan of these maps and of Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen shows forest names based on names of rivers that run through them (Spre waldt), forest names based on descriptions (Schwartzwald, Oderwaldt, Freywalde) and forest names based on local placenames (Thuninger Waldt, Gehrigswaldt. None were found combining occupation+wald or unmistakably surname+wald. [Philipp von Kellerwald, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-r]

GIVEN NAMES

Submitted as Tegen of Liskeard, the submitter argued that this was a spelling variant of Tegan. We note that Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany, published in 1993, lists the name Tegan. However, in the article, "Concerning the Name Tegan", written in 1998, she notes that "Tegan is found as an error for Tegau, the name of a female character appearing in Arthurian literature," so it is likely that the first citation reflects this error rather than a true documented form. The name Tegan has been registered over 40 times, including two registrations in 2004. Therefore Tegan is SCA-compatible. However, no documentation was submitted showing that Tegen is a reasonable variant of Tegan. Therefore, we have changed this name to Tegan of Liskeard. [Tegan of Liskeard, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Guillaume Jean-Pierre de Mortain, double-given names, sometimes hyphenated, are occasionally found in French names, but no evidence was submitted and none found showing the use of triple given names in France. However, by dropping the hyphen, the name we can reasonably interpret the name as a double given name, an unmarked patronymic and a locative byname. We have done this in order to register the name. [Guillaume Jean Pierre de Mortain, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Ainfean inghean Bheoaodh, the spelling Ainfean is a post-period spelling. Precedent states:

The spelling Ainfean is the last form listed in the header for Ainbthen in Ó Corráin & Maguire (p. 19). The spelling shift from "bh" to "f" is typical of the shift from Early Modern Gaelic to Modern Gaelic around 1700. Therefore, as we have no evidence that Ainfean is a period spelling, we have changed the given name to a period form. [Ainbthen inghean Dubhghaill, 11/01, A-Meridies]

Ó Corráin and Maguire, s.n. Ainbthen, show Ainbthine as the Early Modern Gaelic form of this name. [Ainbhthine inghean Bheoaodha, LoAR 12/2005, Caid-A]

Submitted as Kilian Ó Conaill, the anglicization Killian and by extension Kilian were ruled unregisterable in September 2003:

Caitilín ni Killane. Name (see RETURNS for device). Submitted as Caitlín ni Killian, there were some issues with this name. No documentation was provided and none was found to support Killian as a plausible Anglicized Irish form in period. Woulfe (s.n. Ó Cilleáin) dates the Anglicized Irish form O Killane to temp. Elizabeth I-James I. Woulfe (s.n. Ó Cillín also dates the Anglicized Irish forms O Killine and O Killen to the same time period. Based on these examples, registerable forms of this byname would include ni Killane, ni Killine, and ni Killen. As the first of these forms is closest to the submitted ni Killian, we have changed the byname to this form in order to register this name. [LoAR 09/2003 Trimaris-A]"

We have changed the given name to Cillíne, the Early Modern Irish form of this name, in order to register it. Cillíne is found in Ó Corrain [sic] and Maguire, Irish Names, s.n. Cilléne. [Cillíne Ó Conaill, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

There was some question whether Erlan was actually a name. The submitter included evidence of the Latin Erlanus. While this is not definitive proof of Erlan as a vernacular form, we typically give the submitter the benefit of the doubt in similar situations. There is no reason not to do so here. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Sterling is the submitter's legal middle name. Middle names are registerable as given names under the mundan [sic] name allowance if they are given names by type. The submitter has included documentation for Sterling as a 12th C English given name. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the name Arian in use in Wales in period, or in use as a name in cultures that had significant contact with Wales. The submitter asserted that Arian was a variant of the saint's name Arianell, but the submitted documentation only showed Arian- as a protheme in Welsh names. Documentation was presented for the name Arian as an Alexandrian martyr, but no documentation was found showing that the cult of this martyr was known in Wales or in cultures with significant contact with Wales. We would have changed the name to Arianell to match the documentation, but this significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name. The submitter will not accept major changes. [Arian ferch Dafydd Mawr, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Furthermore, no documentation was submitted and none found that the Gaelic diminutive Cáit was used in period; submitted documentation showed it as a modern diminutive for this name. Barring documentation that this diminutive was found in period, it is not registerable. [Cáit Roche, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

As submitted this name has several problems. First, it uses two Swedish given names. Double given names are unattested in Swedish naming practice. Barring documentation for multiple given names in Swedish, names using multiple Swedish given names are not registerable. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Submitted as Aelina inn ákafr, the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse. Aelina is a proposed variant of the Swedish name Ælina; however, there is no evidence that Æ and Ae are interchangable spellings in Swedish. [Eilina in ákafa, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the spelling Synnöve in period. Barring such documentation, this form is not registerable. There are several period variants of this name; we would change the given name to one of these forms, but the submitter will not accept changes. If the submitter is interested in an Old Norse name, Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, shows Sunnifa as an Old Norse form of this name. [Synnöve mána, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The given name Laurana was documented on the LoI to 1655. This is outside our gray-area (1600-1650), and without an earlier citation, the name would be unregisterable. Bronwen noted, "This name appears in a work by Emanuel Forde with the title Parismus, the Renovmed Prince of Bohemia. His most famous, delectable, and pleasant Historie. Conteining His Noble Battailes fought against the Persians. His loue to Laurana, the Kings Daughter of Thessaly. And his straunge Aduentures in the Desolate Iland. With the miseries and miserable imprisonment, Laurana endured in the Iland of Rockes. And a description of the Chiualrie of the Phrygian Knight, Pollipus: and his constant loue to Uioletta which was published at London in 1598." This dates Laurana before 1600, making it registerable as an English literary name. [Laurana de Landa, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Durka Vadas, the spelling Durka is appropriate for a byname. The submitted documentation shows Durko as a given name in 1568. We have changed the given name to this form. [Durko Vadas, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses a double-given name in a Scots name; double-given names are unattested in Scots or Scottish Gaelic. [Stuart Martin MacDonald, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

This name uses a double given name with a Scots rendering of a Gaelic name. This is one step beyond period practice. [George Frank McKenzie, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Jörgen von Unruh, this was an appeal of the return of this name in February 2004. At that time, the name was returned for lack of documentation of the given name and for using the locative preposition von with a descriptive byname. The submitter and the College have provided substantial documentation for Jorgen and Jörgen as a given name. Therefore, the given name is registerable. [Jörgen Unruh, LoAR 10/2004, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Finndabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, no documentation was provided and none found for the name Finndabhair. The cited documentation was for Finnabair/Fionnabhair. Because the patronymic is an Early Modern Irish form, we have changed the given name to Fionnabhair, the Early Modern Irish form. [Fionnabhair inghean ui Mheadhra, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Tama Katerina Evstokh'eva, the name Tama is not formed according to documented Russian practice. Nebuly explains:

The addition of an -a will rarely create a feminized form in Slavic languages, and more often creates a masculine diminutive of a given name, e.g. Antip/Antipa, Dorosh/Dorosha (Dorofei), Kharko/Kharka (Khariton). For each pair of names, both forms are listed as masculine by Wickenden. I was able to pull all three of these example pairs from Wickenden in less than a minute by opening to random pages, which should show evidence that this pattern is common.

Adding an -a is only a general pattern of feminization in Slavic names in certain special cases where the root name is a standard old dithematic name, like Borislav, Borimir, Svetislav, Svetimir, etc. Of the three examples presented in the LoI, only one is of this type (Rostislav/Rostislava), and is legitimately a feminization. However, since the submission uses the proposed masculine root Tam, which is not a dithematic name in Russian, such examples do not apply toward justifying this submission. They represent a different specialized case.

We have, therefore, registered this name as Katerina Evstokh'eva. [Katerina Evstokh'eva, LoAR 10/2004, West-A]

The question was raised whether the name Aidan is reasonable as an English given name, since the Gaelic name Aodhán or Áedán fell out of popular use in Ireland before the 11th C. The saint in question appears as Aidanus in Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. As Bede was known and read in England throughout period, Aidanus is certainly registerable as a period name. As Aidan is the appropriate English vernacular form of the Latin Aidanus, this name is registerable as a literary name. [Aidan Ransford, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it uses a Gaelic name as part of a double-given name, a practice that is unattested in Gaelic cultures in period. [Elizabeth Ciarnait Ravenscroft, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-R]

Submitted as Ragnarr Ulfsaxi, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th-10th C Anglo-Danish or Danish. The second name has several problems. The submitter formed this name by combining the protheme ulf-, found in Old Norse given names, with the name Saxi. However, no documentation was provided and none found that combining Ulf- with a random Norse given name is a valid pattern for forming a Norse name. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Teleri Cadarn, no documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that the name Teleri was used by humans in period. Gruffudd, Welsh Names for Children, derives the modern use of this name from the name of a river. While the name Teleri does appear in the Arthurian tale "Culhwch ac Olwen," an examination of this story shows that the name occurs once in passing when a character swears by a long list of names and events. Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature. However, Teleri is just a name mentioned in the course of the tale; it is not even the name of a character. Barring documentation that the name was used by humans in period, or that it is the name of a significant period literary character, it cannot be registered. The similar sounding name Eleri is found in Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany in the names list taken from Bartrum's Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts and dated examples from Gruffudd. We have changed the name to Eleri Cadarn in order to register it. [Eleri Cadarn, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Joselito Leofric, this name has several problems. No documentation was provided and none found that Joselito was used in period or that the period Spanish diminutives were formed by adding -lito. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

In addition, there was a fixable problem with the given name. The summarization said that the given name Magdalea was the name of the learned woman from Erasmus's dialogue The Abbot and the Learned Lady (Abbatis et eruditae). However, the photocopy provided by the submitter as well as all other references to this work found by the College show the name of the Learned Lady as Magdalia. Barring documentation of the spelling Magdalea, that form is not registerable. However, the spelling Magdalia is a Latin name found in a well-known 16th C literary work distributed on the Continent and in England. Therefore, Magdalia is registerable in contexts where an English given name is registerable. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

The question was raised whether the name Thorin was used by humans in period. Jensen Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire cites a Grunekell f. Thorin 1066-69. [Thorin bjarnkarl, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Wilhelmina von Ravensburg, all available documentation says that the given name was not found until after the 17th C. The article "Cijnsboek Oost- en Middelbeers 1542", http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Amelsvoort/cijnsb1.html, is a census taken in 1542 and written in Latin. It shows a Wilhelma filia Servatii Michaelis; we have changed the given name to this form. [Wilhelma von Ravensburg, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Aelfwyn Ironhair, no documentation was provided and none found for this spelling of the given name. However, Reaney and Wilson, s.n. Alwin say "Ælfwin Finche is probably identical with Ailwinus, Alwinus Finch 1168, 1173." We have changed the name to Ælfwin to match this documentation. [Ælfwin Ironhair, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name was returned in August 2003; in the submission Mealla was described as a saint's name, but no documentation was provided and none found showing this. This submitted has provided citations from several sources, including The Catholic Encylopedia for saint's [sic] of this name. Therefore, the name, in some form, is registerable. The spelling Mealla is modern, but consistent with Early Modern Irish spellings. [Mealla Caimbeul, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name was originally submitted as Caoimhin MacAindriú but it was changed at kingdom to Cáemgen MacAndreas. The submitter request a name authentic to Irish language/culture. As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal.

As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal. First, the spelling Caoimhin is a modern spelling. Barring documentation for this spelling in period, it cannot be registered. Rowel notes the form Cáemgen referring to the 7th C saint. She also notes "I can find no use of it after the 7th C saint. Instead, I find forms like <Giolla Caoimhghin> (Four Masters, B, M1159.3) and <Maol Caoimhghin> (Four Masters, B, M1086.1). Note that the Four Masters use predominently Early Modern Gaelic (c1200-c1700) spellings." This is not unusual for the name of an important saint; in Irish culture, names of saint's were often considered too holy to use and instead devotional forms meaning "servent [sic] of saint's name" were used. However, saint's names were generally part of the Irish naming pool, the bare saint's name, Cáemgen or Caoimhghin are also registerable. [Caoimhghin MacAindriú, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-A]

This name consists of either two given names and a marked patronymic; or of a given name, an unmarked patronymic and a marked patronymic. No documentation was submitted and none found for either practice in period Scotland. We would drop the name Tosh, making the name just a given name and a marked patronymic, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Samuel Tosh McTier, LoAR 07/2004, Ealdormere-R]

Although there is no evidence that the name Jerusha was actually used in England during our period, names from the Bible are generally registerable for languages/cultures such as English where Biblical names are found in the naming pool. This general precept has been stated time and again over the years. We note the the spelling of the given name is a Middle English spelling as well as a modern English spelling; Jerusha appears in Wycliffe's translation of the Bible from the late 14th C. Wycliffe's Bible is available at http://www.sbible.boom.ru/wyc/wycle.htm. [Jerusha Kilgour, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Amanita Villarosa, the documentation showed a masculine name, Amannito in 15th C Florence. We have changed the given name to Amannita to match the submitted documentation. [Amannita Villarosa, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

There was some question of whether Savinne or Savine was an appropriate form of this name. While Savinne is a more usual form, Savine is a reasonable form. In Colm Dubh "An Index to the Given Names in the Paris Census of 1292", there are 14 unambiguous examples of masculine names ending in "n" with corresponding feminine forms. Of these, five are formed by simply adding an "e" to the end of the name, including Asceline [sic]/Asceline and Jehan/Jehane. [Savine de Cressy, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

As documented, this name uses three given names. At the end of period, double given names are occasionally found in England, but no evidence was provided nor any found for triple given names. An alternative interpretation is that the name consists of two given names, an unmarked matronymic and an inherited surname. Because Leah is not found in use in English names until the 17th C, this cannot be an inherited surname. Unfortunately, by the time double given names are found in England, literal matronymics had fallen out of use. Dropping one of the given names would resolve both of these issues, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Rebekah Anna Leah Wynterbourne, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Caitlin O'Sullivan, Caitlin is a modern form of this name and, by precedent, not registerable:

Caitilín ni Killane. Submitted as Caitlín ni Killian, there were some issues with this name. No documentation was provided and none was found that the form Caitlín was used in period, though evidence was found of it as a modern name. We have changed the given name to the documented Early Modern Irish Gaelic (c. 1200 to c. 1700) form Caitilín in order to register this name. [Trimaris-A, LoAR 09/2003]

[Catyln O'Sullivan, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Tearlach mac Conchobair, the name uses the modern Gaelic given name. "Tearlach is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name. Lacking evidence that it was used in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable." [Tearlach McIntosh, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]." The name also combines a modern Irish Gaelic given name with a Middle Irish Gaelic patronymic; even if the given name were registerable, a combination of a modern Irish name and a Middle Irish name is not registerable due to the temporal disparity between the parts. The Middle Irish Gaelic form Tairdelbach is dated to 1086 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Dated Names Found in Ó Corráin and Maguire's Irish Names." Therefore, we have changed this name to Tairdelbach mac Conchobair, a fully Middle Irish Gaelic form. [Tairdelbach mac Conchobair, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

GRAMMAR

Old Norse grammar shows the correct genitive for Hákon is Hákonarson. We have made this change, and registered the name as Snæbj{o,}rn_Hákonarson. [Snæbj{o,}rn Hákonarson, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

While not cause for return, there are grammatical, spelling, and transcription problems with the name. First, the spelling of the byname in the documentation is Seiðkona, not Sieðkona. Second, in Old Norse, bynames using in or inn are always weak adjectival forms, but Sieðkona [sic] is a noun meaning sorcoress or witch. Finally, by precedent, descriptive bynames in Old Norse are always transcribed in all lowercase. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Submitted as Svanhild bogsveigira færeyjaska, the bynames are not in the appropriate forms. The submitter documents bodsveigir [sic] from Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name and attempts to form a feminine version by adding an a to the end. While the instinct is good, she fails to remove the masculine "-ir" ending; the correct feminine form is bodsveiga [sic]. Similarly, the root for forming the byname meaning "from the Faeroes" is færey-; the byname meaning "woman from the Faeroes" is færeyska. We have changed the name to Svanhild bosveiga [sic] færeyska in order to correct the grammar. [Svanhild bogsveiga færeyska, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Rodulf der Schützer...the grammar of the byname is incorrect; Schützer is an adjectival form of der Schütze. [Rudolf der Schütze, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Safiyah al-'Attariyah bint 'Abd al-Rahman, the grammar of the nisba, al-'Attariyah, is incorrect. In this case, a hypothetical feminine ending "yah" was added to the end of the masculine form of the nisba, al'Attari [sic], rather than to the root al-'Attar-. The correct feminine form of this nisba is al-'Attarah. We have changed the name to Safiyah al-'Attarah bint 'Abd al-Rahman to correct the grammar. [Safiyah al-'Attarah bint 'Abd al-Rahman, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

[Award of the Norðband.] The word Norðband is not a reasonable construction. Although the definition of band in Zoega [sic], A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic is shown as bond, confederacy, it is not clear whether this refers to a group of people or to the contract that establishes the bond. The word bandmaðr, "confederate, bondman" strongly suggests that the latter definition is the correct one. In this case, the name simply does not make sense. For this name to be registerable, documentation of band in Old Norse unambiguously describing a group of people is needed. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

Submitted as Þorgautr Sveinnsson inn upplenzki, the patronymic is incorrectly formed. In Old Norse, the genitive of names ending in -nn are formed by transforming the ending letters to -ns. We have changed the name to Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki to correct the grammar. [Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Ainfean inghean Bheoaodh...In addition, Gaelic grammar requires that the patronymic appear in the genitive case; as submitted it is in the nominative case. We have changed the name to Ainbthine inghean Bheoaodha in order to register it and to correct the grammar. [Ainbhthine inghean Bheoaodha, LoAR 12/2005, Caid-A]

Submitted as Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, Nebuly notes:

Although locative bynames formed using the preposition z do appear in period Polish, the construction is far more typical of Czech. Poles used the suffix -ski/-ska far more frequently...

The biggest headache with using the explicit locative form is that the object of the preposition z must be put into the genitive, which is never easy in Polish. The genitive ending depends not only on the gender of the object (masculine, feminine, or neuter) which cannot always be determined by its ending (some masculine nouns and in -a), but also depends upon the ultimate etymological derivation of the noun, its current function, the value (hard or soft) of the final consonant and which vowels happen to follow, and whether the noun is inherently "alive" or inherently "plural". My best guess in this case is that the genitive of Gosprzydowa is Gosprzydowy.

We have changed the name to Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowy in order to correct the grammar. We note that Miros{l/}awa Gosprzydowska is a much more usual form of this name; however, it is a bigger change and the submitter did not request authenticity. [Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Ailill mac Ferchair Uí Diarmait, the second patronymic is in the nominative case rather than the required genitive case. The earliest example of this name used as a patronymic we have found is in The Annals of the Four Masters where we find Diarmait Clereach mac Corbmaic Meic Diarmata. While this name appears in an Early Modern Irish context, the spelling of the given name Diarmait is the same in both Middle Irish and Early Modern Irish. Therefore, Diarmata should be the appropriate genitive spelling for Middle Irish; we have made that change. [Ailill mac Ferchair Uí Diarmata, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Birna Rauða, the byname is in the strong adjectival form. According to Geirr Bassi, "The strong feminine is endingless, but root a becomes (o,)." In addition, precedent only allows the registration of Old Norse bynames in all lowercase. We have changed the name to Birna rauð to correct the grammar and make it consistent with precedent. If the submitter is interested in a weak adjectival form of the byname, we suggest in rauða. [Birna rauð, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Raina Iskramor, the submitter suggested that Iskramor was justified as a descriptive byname. However, the lists of themes in Wickenden, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names are those found in given names; Wickenden does not address the formation of descriptive bynames in this section. Furthermore, the example given for this theme, Iskrets, shows the terminal a mutating to an e. Iskremor is a properly constructed given name using the themes Iskra and Mor. However, as submitted, the name consists of two given names and no bynames. We have changed the name to Raina Iskremorova, which corrects the formation of the byname and changes it to a patronymic. [Raina Iskremorova, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

In Old Norse, adjectival bynames must agree in gender with the given name; the correct feminine version of the submitted byname is in ákafa. We have made this change to correct the grammar of the byname. [Eilina in áákafa, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Faolan MacAodh, the patronymic particle was typically separated from the patronymic in period Gaelic names and written in lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Faolan mac_Aodh. [Faolan mac Aodh, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Gleann nam Feorag Dubh, Canton of, the submitted documentation for names contructed with the pattern "toponym+particle+animal+color" had the color in the genitive case. We have changed the name to Gleann nam Feoragh Dhuibhe to correct the grammar. [Gleann nam Feorag Dhuibhe, Canton of, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Adelindis filia Gotefrid, the patronymic appears in the nominative case, meaning "Adelindis daughter Gotfrid." We have changed this to Adelindis filia Gotefridi, which puts the patronymic in the correct genitive case. [Adelindis filia Gotefridi, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Liadan inghean Aodhan, Gaelic grammar requires the patronymic be in the genitive form. We have changed the name to Liadan inghean Aodhain to correct the grammar. [Liadan inghean Aodhain, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

[Ari svarthjálmr.] Submitted as Ari svartihjálmr, the question was raised whether svarti-, meaning black, swarthy, was used to describe the color of objects rather than the color of hair, skin, and fur. Geir T Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, http://www.northvegr.org/zoega, lists svartaðr "dyed black", and svart-leggja, an axe with a black handle;" this seems sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. The examples found in Zoëga and those supplied by Orle from Cleasby, Richard and Guðbrandr Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary suggest that svarthjálmr is the correct formation for this name. We have made this change. We note that the nickname means "black helmet" not "dark helmet." [Aran Darkhelm, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Séigíne inghean uí Draighneain, the submitted documentation shows the patronymic as Draighneáin. In addition, Irish grammar requires that the patronyic be lenited, giving inghean uí Dhraighneáin. We have made these changes. [Séigíne inghean uí Dhraighneáin, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Enricx Bongnier, several commenters questioned whether Enricx was the nominative form of this name. The name is found in various chansons as both Enric and Enricx. Since Enric appears unambiguously in the nominative case, while it is not always clear whether Enricx is in the nominative or the genitive case, we have changed the name to Enric Bongnier to ensure that the grammar is correct. [Enric Bongnier, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Brigit Camshrón, Gaelic grammar requires a descriptive byname such as Camshrón to lenite when used with a feminine given name; therefore, we have changed the name to Brigit Chamshrón to correct its grammar. [Brigit Chamshrón, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

We note that the patronymic Gille Crist is a pre-1200 form; lenition is not spelled out with the letter G during this period. [Muriel ingen Gille Crist, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

In addition, Early Modern Gaelic grammar requires feminine patronymics starting with the letter F lenite. We have changed tthe name to Áine inghean Fhlaithimhin to reflect these requirements. [Áine inghean Fhlaithimhin, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Anastasiia Ivanova Petrshalov, Russian grammer requires that the second patronymic be feminized to match the gender of the given name. We have, therefore, changed the name to Anastasiia Ivanova Petroshalova. [Anastasiia Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Originally submitted as Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, the name was changed at kingdom to Svatava Ivanova Petreshalov. Because this is a feminine name, both patronymics need to be in the feminine form, as they are in the originally submitted form. We have, therefore, changed the name back to this form. [Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Ailis inghean Mhairghread, Gaelic grammar requires the metronymic be in the genitive case. Rowel provides two possible genetive forms Mairghrege and Mairgreicce and notes that the former is more likely based on Early Modern Irish Gaelic spelling rules. We have, therefore, changed the name to Ailis inghean Mhairghrege to comply with Gaelic grammer. [Ailis inghean Mhairghrege, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

We note that the grammar of the byname is in the nominitive form when it should be in the genitive (possessive) form. The correct form is uxor Draconis. [Ygraine uxor Draco, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as Draka Bronov, Nebuly notes a problem with the grammar of the locative:

The LoI has misspelled the name of the town listed in Wickenden (p.432). The name of the town is Bran' (or Bron). The soft sign was left off in the LoI, and although it is not necessary for registration, it can affect the grammar when endings are added. In this submission, the locative should be spelled Bronev, since the town's name ends in a "soft" sound.

We have changed the name to Draka Bronev to correct the grammar. [Draka Bronev, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Cairistiona inghean Choinnaig, the patronymic was a hypothetical genitive form of Cainneach. The Annals of the Four Masters (B), entry M1098.24 lists Mac Giolla Choinnigh I Urdhain; we have changed the name to Cairistiona inghean Choinnigh to match this documented Early Modern Irish Gaelic form. [Cairistiona inghean Choinnigh, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

GRANDFATHER CLAUSE

[Order of Apollo] No documentation was submitted and none found that period order names were formed using the names of non-christian-deities. However, the Barony already has Order of Athena registered to them; therefore, the pattern "Order of 'Greek god'" is grandfathered to them. [Angels, Barony of the, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

No documentation was presented that Zwickel is a German placename; the submitted documentation indicates that it is a descriptive byname. However, her husband's registered name is Kollack von Zweckel, so the byname is grandfathered to his spouse and immediate family. [Rebecca von Zweckel, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

All elements of this name are grandfathered to her. [Dalla of the Misty Forest, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The byname, of Kerry, is grandfathered to him; his father is Michael Arthur of Kerry. [Fallon of Kerry, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The name Aelfric is grandfathered to her; it is the registered given name of her father, Aelfric Bernson of Westbrook. The grandfather clause says that once a name is registered to someone, it remains registered to them even if a rules change makes the name unregisterable. It further says that they and their close relatives may continue to register the name, so long as no different rules violations are introduced. In this case, Aelfric is currently unregisterable to those to whom it is not grandfathered. The spelling Aelfric is unattested; Old English names spelled with Æ are usually found in Middle English using A, Ai, E, Ei, or sometimes Æ. No examples have been found of an Æ --> Ae transition. Without such documentation, names that substitute Ae for Æ are not registerable. [Gwenhwyvar filia Aelfric, LoAR 11/2004, Artemisia-A]

The given name, Isolda, is grandfathered to her. [Isolda Vogelsang, LoAR 11/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Seamus mac Duibhne, it is customary in Scottish Gaelic for patronymics beginning with D to lenite. We have changed the spelling to Seamus mac Dhuibhne to correct the grammar. [Seamus mac Dhuibne, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

The elements Drake and Oranwood are grandfathered to the submitter. [Eric Drake Oranwood, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

The byname, de Fairmont, is grandfathered to him. Bhalter de Fairmont is the registered name of his father. [Jacques de Fairmont, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-A]

The submission claimed the byname under the grandfather clause as his wife's registered byname. However, no documentation of this relationship was presented beyond his statement. The October 2002 cover letter states "Support for use of the "Grandfather Clause" by family members must be included with the submission. Such support may be a letter signed by the family member with the original registration indicating the family relations, or it may be other documentation such as a birth certificate." However, Siren provided documentation supporting the byname:
Edgewood is a reasonable construction; see Edgeworth on p.160 of Ekwall for use of Edge- as a placename element meaning "by an edge or hillside" which could easily be combined with -wood. Naming a castle for its nearby village is a common practice in England --- Leeds Castle is a good example of this practice.
Therefore, the byname of Edgewood Castle is registerable independent of the grandfather clause. [Byran of Edgewood Castle, LoAR, 07/2004, West-A]

The given name, Gavine, is grandfathered to the submitter. [Gavine Armestrang, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

The byname, Dragonsclaw is grandfathered to the submitter. [Kiriena Dragonsclaw, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Current precedent holds that descriptive bynames in Old Norse names should be written in all lowercase, however, the capitalization of the descriptive byname is grandfathered to the submitter. [Styrbjorn Ulfhamr, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Submitted as Talon mac Dubhagáin, this name combines a Welsh given name with a Gaelic patronymic; such a combination has been ruled unregisterable for several years...The question was raised whether this name combination should be registerable under the grandfather clause. The grandfather clause says that a name or armory, once registered, cannot be unregistered even if rule changes make it unregisterable. The clause also allows continued registration of a name or armorial element as long as the new submission contains no rules violations not already present under the current rules in the currently registered name or armory. In this case, the registration of Talon mac Dubhagáin, a Welsh/Gaelic combination, introduces a violation not present in his primary name, Talon the Bastard, a Welsh/English combination. Had his primary name been a Welsh/Gaelic combination, then the submitted name would have been registerable under the grandfather clause because it had the same violation as the registered name. [Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

GREEK

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the name Arian in use in Wales in period, or in use as a name in cultures that had significant contact with Wales. The submitter asserted that Arian was a variant of the saint's name Arianell, but the submitted documentation only showed Arian- as a protheme in Welsh names. Documentation was presented for the name Arian as an Alexandrian martyr, but no documentation was found showing that the cult of this martyr was known in Wales or in cultures with significant contact with Wales. We would have changed the name to Arianell to match the documentation, but this significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name. The submitter will not accept major changes. [Arian ferch Dafydd Mawr, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

This name combines Greek and Arabic; such combinations are one step beyond period practice. [Helene al-Zarqa', LoAR 10/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

[Melissa] The LoI documented this name from ancient and early medieval Greece. However, Greek/English combinations were ruled unregisterable in January 2003: "No evidence was presented that England and the Byzantine Empire had significant contact in period. Lacking such evidence, a name mixing English and Byzantine Greek is not registerable." [Melissa the Poulteress, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Dominika Anatolikina, Metron Ariston notes a problem with the derivation of the byname:

The cited form of the masculine name alluded to in Chavez' article is Anatolicus, the Latin form, which in this case is derived from a Greek form that could be transliterated as Anatolikos. However, this name is geographical in origins and derives from an adjective used to describe someone who came from Anatolia. The use of this sort of adjective as a given name was common for slaves and many early Christian given names were of this sort. However, in the relatively early Byzantine period alluded to in the documentation, a byname would probably be still adjectival in nature rather than patronymic when using this adjective so the basic adjective should simply be changed to the feminine which would give a transliterated form such as Dominika Anatolika, which would mean Dominika the Anatolian.

We have, therefore, changed the name to Dominika Anatolika. [Dominika Anatolika, LoAR 07/2004, Artemisia-A]

GREY AREA

The given name Laurana was documented on the LoI to 1655. This is outside our gray-area (1600-1650), and without an earlier citation, the name would be unregisterable. Bronwen noted, "This name appears in a work by Emanuel Forde with the title Parismus, the Renovmed Prince of Bohemia. His most famous, delectable, and pleasant Historie. Conteining His Noble Battailes fought against the Persians. His loue to Laurana, the Kings Daughter of Thessaly. And his straunge Aduentures in the Desolate Iland. With the miseries and miserable imprisonment, Laurana endured in the Iland of Rockes. And a description of the Chiualrie of the Phrygian Knight, Pollipus: and his constant loue to Uioletta which was published at London in 1598." This dates Laurana before 1600, making it registerable as an English literary name. [Laurana de Landa, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

HEBREW

Originally submitted as Eliyahu ben Ezra, the name was changed in Kingdom to Elijah ben Ezra to match the available documentation. However, Eliyahu is a standard transliteration of this Hebrew name. Therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Eliyahu ben Ezra, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

This name appeared on the LoI as Aryeh ben David ben Zecharia, but the form had Arya ben David ben Zecharia; the -a at the end of Arya was crossed out with -eh written in over it. In this case, internal kingdom commentary was included in the packet indicating this change was made at kingdom. The change is a valid transcription change which is explicitly acceptable to the submitter, so there is no need to change it back to the spelling on the form. [Aryeh ben David ben Zecharia, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Some commenters questioned whether Mephiboseth was a reasonable transliteration of the Hebrew name found in 2 Samuel. Argent Snail checked a Hebrew Bible and notes,

it turns out it is a reasonably close transliteration.... unless I have forgotten how to read Hebrew, it is fine as it is...that transliteration is a Sephardic one. There are two basic ways to pronouce Hebrew... Sephardic is how Arabic Jews and Israelies pronounce it, Ashkenazic is how European Jews do it...both forms are legit, as long as you are consistant. Luckily the rest of the name can go either way.

[Mephiboseth ben Yosef, LoAR 07/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Coinneach Micha Moray, the element Micha has several problems. First, no documentation was submitted and none found that Micha is found in period. The website from which this name was documented is an index to a book, Jewish Surnames from Prague (15th - 18th Centuries) by Alexander Beider. While the book gives dates, the index does not; so, we don't know whether this name was found in the 15th C or in the 18th. Furthermore, and more important, no documentation was submitted and none found for substantial contact between Bohemia and Scotland in period. Barring such documentation, combining Bohemian with either Scots or Gaelic in the same name is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered this name as Coinneach Moray. In that form, the name is still one step from period practice, but it is registerable. [Coinneach Moray, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

HERALDIC TITLES

[Octofoil Herald] In order to be registerable as a heraldic title, the name of a heraldic charge must be found in period. Unfortunately, this is not the case for octofoil. The earliest date that the OED has for this term is 1844.

Although a foil of eight leaves is a period charge, the best evidence we have is that it was called a double quatrefoil in period. Leigh, The accedens of armory, in 1562 says of this charge "the double Caterfoyle ... He beareth the quaterfoyle double ... because he is the viij from the heire", while Guillim, A display of heraldrie, 1610, calls it "the Double Cater-foile." We would change the title to match this documentation, but the submitter will only accept minor changes. [Artemisia, Kingdom of, LoAR 10/2004, Artemisia-R]

[Money Bag Herald] The College provided documentation for the term money bag; the OED dates it to the late 16th C. However, while the term Money Bag is used to describe a particular form of pouch in SCA heraldry, no evidence was found that this term was ever so used in period heraldry. Furthermore, no documentation was submitted and none found that the term money bag was used in period to describe an object visually distinct from the charge known as a pouch or purse. Without such documentation, Money Bag cannot be registered as a heraldic title. [West, Kingdom of, LoAR 09/2004, West-R]

[Kanatatsu Herald] As with Japanese place-names, a Japanese heraldic title falls outside the defined scope of the Society. Laurel said this in June 1994 in returing the Shire of Ryuugatani, and it holds true in this case as well:

...a Japanese place-name does not appear to fall within the defined scope of the Society, which is pre-17th Century Western culture (RfS I.1. See also "Scope of the Society: Period and Culture" in the Organizational Handbook, pp. 74-75). "Its domain includes Europe and areas that had contact with Europe during this period." (RfS I.1.) It was noted that while there was clearly some contact in very late period between Europe and Japan, and evidence that some few Japanese actually visited Europe, the contact between Europe and Japan was not great enough to justify a Japanese place-name in pre-17th C. Europe.

[Atlantia, Kingdom of, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-R]

[Ray de Soleil Pursuivant] Submitted as Rayon de Soleil Pursuivant, the charge from which the title was drawn was documented as Ray de Soleil. We have changed this title to the documented form. [Caer Galen, Barony of, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

[Boke Herawde] Reluctantly, I must declare this title too generic to register. One of the common definitions of generic in the OED is " Of a name or designation (as for some type of product): that is used generally for the article, etc., that it describes, and is therefore not admissible as a trade mark; not protected by legislation, non-proprietary." This definition closely fits the common SCA term "book herald," a term near and dear to the hearts of many research heralds or, as I heard from many of them when this title was discussed, book heralds. [Northshield, Kingdom of, LoAR 07/2004, Northshield-R]

HOUSEHOLD NAMES

[House of the Gilded Trellis] There was some question whether the formation Gilded Trellis was a reasonable name for a group of people. The submitter provided documentation for the words gilded and trellis in period, and that a trellis is a constructed object that might be gilded. She also provided an example of a street named for a merchant's sign: Gyltspurstreate from mid-16th century in A.D. Mills, A Dictionary of London Streetnames. Thus this name is consistent with an object a merchant might hang to identify their business, after the fashion of the gilt spur example. [Rhiannon ferch Cian, LoAR 01/2005, Ansteorra-A]

[Clann Lochlainn Mor.] This is presumptous of the real-world Clann Lochlainn. While the descriptive element Mor clears the two names of conflict, the founder of the real-world Clann Lochlainn is, according to the submitter's documentation, Lochlainn Mor. Therefore, this claim is identical to the one of the real-world clan. If the submitter wishes to remove the presumption, we suggest choosing a different descriptive byname. Clann Lochlain Dubh, for example, would not be presumptous. [Santin Westmerland of Ravenstonedale, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-R]

[House Hydra] No documentation was submitted demontrating that Hydra is a reasonable inn sign name. Nor did the College supply any. The documentation consisted of a statement that the word Hydra is found in the 16th C in England and an assertation that the name follows inn name patterns. No examples of inn name patterns were given, nor was the definition of Hydra as found in the OED included in the summarization. Such lack of documentation/summarization has long since been reason for return, especially when the College does not supply such missing information in commentary. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

[House of Hunter.] This name implies that the submitter is the head of the real-world Clan Hunter, and so violates RfS VI.1, "Names Claiming Rank", which states, "Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous." (Designators, such as Keep and Clan, are transparent for conflict and presumption purposes.) [Thomas Sinclair, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-R]

[House of the Crimson Scorpion.] Submitted as The Crimson Scorpion, this household name did not include a designator. RfS 2.b. Non-Personal Names says, "Branch names, names of orders and awards, heraldic titles, and household names must consist of a designator that identifies the type of entity and at least one descriptive element." We have added a designator to this name and registered it as House of the Crimson Scorpion. [Morgan Faraday, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

[Company of Gesters.] Listed on the LoI as an Order name, the forms showed this was intended as a guild name. We note that the designator "Company is a designator that applies only to household names. [Dun Carraig, Barony of, 10/99, A-Atlantia]". [Stonemarche, Barony of, LoAR 09/2004, East-R]

[Domus Solis Ortis.] No documentation was submitted and none found that a Roman name meaning House of the Rising Sun or House of Sunrise followed Roman or Latin naming patterns for groups of people in period. Barring such documentation, this name is not registerable. [Artos Ancilis, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

[Worshipful Company of Saint Matthias.] While the documentation asserted that "the guild name is modelled on...the many guilds known by the names of their patron saints," no citations of such names were given. The Corpus of Middle English Text, http://www.hti.umich.edu/c/cme/, gives several examples of such guild names from the 14th and 15th C, including Gylde of the holye and blyssed Vyrgyne and martyr Seynt Katryn in Stamford, gilda sancti Petri in Oxeburghe, and Gilda Sancti Thome Episcopi Cantuariensis in Lynn. These examples provide the documentation necessary to register this name. [Roana de Laci, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

[Haus Gebrochen Brüke.] No documentation was provided and none found that this household name followed a German naming pattern for a group of people. The name was justified as a housename. However, as Orle notes, housenames are typically derived from objects with common names painted on a house: "German house names follow the pattern of animals, trees, plants, a couple of mythical creatures and some common objects like sack, bucket, pot, star, or plow. Most are plants or animals." Neither Brechenmacher nor Bahlow's German Names show any surnames using Gebrochen, (broken). [Olaf Wulfbrandt, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-R]

[Worshipful Company of Broiders.] The designation Worshipful Company of Broiders was suggested as the designation for this badge. However, Broider is a verb meaning "to embroider." Therefore, it is inappropriate as the descriptive element for a guild name, generic or not. A properly generic descriptor here would be Company of Broiderers or Broiderers Guild.

Which gets us to the main question -- is Worshipful Company of X, where X is a generic descriptive element a generic identifier? The January 1993 coverletter had this to say on the subject "A better term might be "job-description": a simple declaration of the intended use of the badge...So long as the badge is associated with a purely functional name, it's [the name] neither checked for conflict during submission or protected from conflict afterwards." The addition of the adjective Worshipful lifts this out of the realm of purely functional, even through the adjective is part of the designator and not part of the descriptive element. [Lochac, Kingdom of, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

[Black Isle Academy.] Two questions were raised by this submission: whether a household name of the form "placename+Academy" was reasonable, and whether Black Isle was a reasonable placename.

The OED provides this definition of Academy dated to the early 16th C, "A place where the arts and sciences are taught; an institution for the study of higher learning; in the general sense including a university." Fortunately, there are two readily available lists of names of institutions for the study of higher learning -- the lists of Colleges of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. These each have Colleges founded before 1600 whose names are based on either locative bynames or the names of the locations administered, owned, or ruled by the College's founder. These include Merton College, Oxford, founded by Walter de Merton in 1264, Exeter College, Oxford, founded by Walter de Stapeldon, Bishop of Exeter around 1314, Pembroke College, Cambridge, founded by Mary de St Pol, wife of the Earl of Pembroke in 1347, and Clare College, Cambridge, founded by Elizabeth de Clare in 1323 and known as Clare Hall as early as 1339. Thus, the pattern "placename+Academy" is a reasonable English name formation. [Janusch der Wasserman, LoAR 07/2004, Northshield-A]

[House of Four Winds] The submitter justified this household name as a possible sign name, but provided no documentation for winds or four winds as objects depicted in period. However, Orle noted, "Winds are depicted on many early maps." Indeed, a web search revealed a large number of period maps showing various numbers of winds. Johannes Eschuidus's 1489 map of the world (http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/201C.html) and Nicolas Germanus's 1420 world map both show fourteen winds; this seems to be the usual number for Ptolomeic maps of the world. In her article "Wind Diagrams and Medieval Cosmology" Barbara Orbrist says "..the four major winds also appear in the opposite role of guarantor of cosmic order, by being associated with the cardinal axes, the other winds being reduced to the subordinate position of potential troublemakers. Pictorial representations of winds constitute a main source of information on the view of winds as maintaining the stability of the cosmos..." (Speculum, Vol. 72, No. 1. (Jan., 1997), p 38). This seems sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt that a depiction of Four Winds would be a reasonable and recognizable icon for a late period inn sign. [Angus MacGregor of Argyll, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

HUNGARIAN

Submitted as Mihály Krÿstÿna, the submitter requested authenticity for 14th C Hungarian language/culture. Nebuly notes that the patronymic, Mihály is the modern form of this name, but dates Mihaly to 1589. In addition, by precedent, unmarked patronymics must appear after the given name in Hungarian names

Hungarian names may be registered with either the given name or byname as the first element, except when the byname is an unmarked patronym or metronym. In that case, the byname should follow the given name. [István Nviregyhazi, Aug 98 LoAR, p.8]

Therefore, we have changed the name to Krÿstÿna Mihaly in order to register it. [Krÿstÿna Mihaly, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-A]

Submitted as Számszeríjász Tibor_, the submitter requested authenticity for Hungarian language/culture and accepted all changes. Our best evidence suggests that számszeríjász is not a period word for a crossbowman. Nebuly provides a summarization of the available documentation:

The submitted spelling appears to be modern. I cannot find any support for the use of Számszerijász [sic] as a byname. The word literally means "numerical bow/archer", but does not appear in Magay-Országh (one of the best Hungarian-English translating dictionaries) or in Kázmér. This may mean that it is an obscure term. The only period bynames I can find that would mean "archer" are Nyilas or Nylas (Kázm&eeacute;r, s.n. Nyilas) and Iwes or Ywes (ibid., s.n. Íjas). If the submitter allows, I recommend changing the byname to one of the documented forms, especially since we don't even know whether számszerijász [sic] is even a period term. The most authentic form would be Nyilas Tiborch.

The submitted documentation provided no dates for the given name, but Kázmér, Régi Magyar Családnevek Szótára: XIV-XVII Század, s.n. Tiborc) shows the form Tiborch, dated 1576. We have, therefore, changed the name to Nyilas Tiborch to comply with the submitter's request for authenticity. [Nyilas Tiborch, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name uses a double given name; one of the names is Czech and the other Hungarian. No documentation was provided and none found or use of double given names in either of these cultures. Without such evidence, a Czech or Hungarian name using two given names is not registerable. We would drop one of the given names in order to register this name, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Katrina Petronÿa von Rosenberg, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

ITALIAN

This name combines French and Italian, this is one step beyond period practice. [Marion Leoncina da Susa, LoAR 01/2005, Meridies-A]

As documented, this name mixes English and Italian, which is one step from period practice. However, Hund notes that de Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani cites Elias as a Latinized form of the Italian Elia. Therefore, this name mixes a Latinized Italian and vernacular Italian mix. [Elias Loredan, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Lucrezia Sarta di Napoli, da is the usual locative preposition in Italian bynames. We have changed the name to Lucrezia Sarta da Napoli to correct the grammar. [Lucrezia Sarta da Napoli, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name mixes an Italian saint's name with an English byname, such mixtures are one step beyond period practice. [Eliana Fraser, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

The submitter requested authenticity for Italian language/culture. The given name, Iride, was documented as a header form in De Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani, and was undated. We typically register header forms from this work as long as there is no indication they are modern forms. However, without a dated example of the given name, we cannot guarantee that this is an authentic Italian name. [Iride Corsellini, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

This name combines Arabic and Italian in a single name. To register names combining forms from two cultures, documentation of substantial contact between two cultures must be demonstrated. Siren provides such documentation:

Arabs ruled over Sicily from the 9th to the 11th century. Goitein, p. 215 quotes a writer from 11th century Egypt who writes that in one year 10 ships came from Sicily, each carrying some 500 passengers; in what seems a normal year, some 5000 travellers went back and forth. "Sicily" here may include some points between, such as Tunisia, but the numbers are still large.
Arabs and Italians were both deeply involved in the medieval Mediterranean trade. A Muslim traveller, Ibn Jubayr, in 1184 commented on the many Muslims serving in the court at Palermo; this is over 60 years after Roger was crowned king of Sicily in 1130. (Holmes, p. 200). The discussion of Frederick II (1194-1250) says "He made the cosmopolitan culture of Sicily his own, and his court was rich in scholars of Islam, astrologers, exotic animals... (p. 223). Goitein, S.D., A Mediterrranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol 1: Economic Foundations. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1967. Holmes, George (ed.), The Oxford History of Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford. 1988.

Therefore, names combining Arabic and Italian are one step from period practice, but registerable. We note that names combining Arabic and Italian forms in a single name are highly unlikely. The name would have an Italian version used in an Italian context and an Arabic version used in an Arabic context. [Amat al-Shakoor di Riccardo, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

Mixing Italian and Spanish in a name is one step from period practice. [Alessandra de Burgos, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Alida de Conti, the submitted documentation showed the form de' Conti. This is a scribal abbreviation for dei; we have changed her name to Alida dei Conti to match the submitted documentation. [Alida dei Conti, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

This name combines an Italian given name with a German byname; this is one step from period practice. [Damiano Faust, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

However, as there is no evidence of substantial contact between Italy and Anglo-Saxon England, Italian and Anglo-Saxon name combinations are also unregisterable. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name mixes an English or Scots name with an Italian name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Arabella Niccola Giovanni, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

This name mixes a French given name with an Italian byname, which is one step beyond period practice. [Dalia d'Auria, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

The name Melissa appears in the 16th C Italian poem Orlando Furioso. Unfortunately, the Melissa in Orlando Furioso is a fairy, not a human. Precedent of February 1999 says for a literary name to be registerable "it has to be a name of a human being in the story. God/dess, elf, dwarf, etc. names aren't usable." [Melissa the Poulteress, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Simona Dell'Amore, the preposition in Italian names is typically shown in all lowercase. We have, therefore, changed this name to Simona dell'Amore. [Simona dell'Amore, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

Submitted as Amanita Villarosa, the documentation showed a masculine name, Amannito in 15th C Florence. We have changed the given name to Amannita to match the submitted documentation. [Amannita Villarosa, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

This name combines an Italian given name with an otherwise Spanish name; this is one step from period practice. [Dante Madraso de Castilla, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Vincènzo di Bartolomèo de Bréscia, the forms showed Vincènzo di Bartolomèo da Bréscia. The article da is typical for locative bynames in Italian. [Vincenzo di Bartolomeo da Brescia, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Vincènzo di Bartolomèo de Bréscia, the forms showed Vincènzo di Bartolomèo da Bréscia...Also, the name was documented from de Felice. Accents in this work are a pronunciation buide, not part of the spelling of the name. Therefore, we have changed the name to the spelling on the forms and dropped the accents, giving, Vincenzo di Bartolomeo da Brescia. [Vincenzo di Bartolomeo da Brescia, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Precedent on the given name, Brenna, set in 10/94 says, "Brenna is only marginally justifiable for the Classical Mediterranean area. Its use in an Anglo-Irish name as one of two given names becomes two steps beyond period practice..." Since that time, the name has been registered seven times without comment with non-Italian bynames, most recently in the registration of Brenna Bethan in February 2003. While lack of comment is not proof of opinion, this at least suggests that past Laurels have viewed this as an acceptable Italian name. Certainly, there is a significant pool of Italian names that are derived from Latin names, a pattern which Brenna follows. We note that this name mixes English and Italian in a single name, which is one step from period practice. [Brenna Garrett, LoAR 06/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Salvatore Rocco de Napoli, we have changed the preposition to da, which is the preposition used for locative bynames in Italian. [Salvatore Rocco da Napoli, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Francesco Gaetano Greco de Edessa, the final byname elides to d'Edessa in Italian. We have made this change. [Francesco Gaetano Greco d'Edessa, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Dimitri Biagi, the documentation submitted for the given name explicitly describes this as a modern Italian form. Loosely translated, de Felice says this about the name: "the form Dimitri is the Slavic form of Demetrio, it represents a name of foreign residents and is, above all, a recent name of fashion, exotic or of literary derivation particularly from Russian literature." Barring evidence of significant contact between Russia and Italy in period or evidence of the use of this form in period in Italy, the form Dimitri is not registerable as part of an Italian name. The spelling Demetrio is a saint's name found in Italy in period. Although there is no evidence that this particular saint's name entered the Italian naming pool, it is registerable as part of an Italian name. We have, therefore, changed this name to Demetrio Biagi. [Demetrio Biagi, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Bella Delmare, the byname was documented from the names list in the "Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532." This source lists names in all capital letters and eliminates spaces in name phrases. The usual documentary form of this byname is del Mare; we have changed the byname to this form. [Bella del Mare, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Justina Elizabeth Vigilanté, the byname was documented from Fucilla, Our Italian Surnames. The problem with Fucilla is that there are few, if any, dates in this source. So, in most instances, it is not possible to tell simply from reading the entry in Fucilla if the name is period or not. In most cases, the same name may be found in other sources, in others, a pattern of similar names may be documented. In this case, no dated citations for this name were found. [Justina Elizabeth Vigilant, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

JAPANESE

This name is presumptous of Mugai Nyodai. Mugai Nyodai is the first female Zen master in Japan and is considered one of the great Matriarchs of Zen Buddhism. She is also the founder of the Keiji convent. While the names do not conflict, combining part of the homei, or Buddhist religious name, of this important woman and the name of the convent she founded creates too strong a reference to the historical person. [Keaiji no Nyûdô Nyôdai, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

In addition, no documentation was submitted showing that Nyodai would be reasonable by itself as a nanori or yobina. The submitter included personal correpondance with a Japanese speaker speculating that the element Nyodai was a reasonable law name (a Buddist name aquired unpon becoming a nun or monk, or upon dying). However, it is long standing precedent that communication with a modern speaker is not adequate documentation for a period name. If the submitter wishes to resubmit this name element, she must address this issue. [[Keaiji no Nyûdô Nyôdai, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

No documentation was provided and none found for the name or name element Kiho-. We would have dropped this element, but the submitter will not accept major changes. In addition, it is not clear where the submitter found the õ character used in this submission. The documentation for the yobina, p 198 of Solveig Throndaradottir, Name Construction in Medieval Japan, shows the elements used to construct this name as Hiko- and -jirou. Both parts of the name are found around 1600. [Kashiwadebe no Hikojirõ Kihõ, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-R]

Several commentors cited the precedent of February 2002 forbidding the element "no" on written Japanese names. This precedent has been partially overturned:

Given that no is included in furigana glosses in classical texts, though not in the original texts (and so it is not appropriate for those submitters desiring authenticity), nocan be viewed as a modern transliteration standard. As such, it is registerable, so long as it is not used in a construction that could be viewed as presumptous. [Fujiwara no Aoi, 05/02, A-East]

[Kashiwadebe no Hikojirõ Kih&otild;e, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-R]

[Kanatatsu Herald] As with Japanese place-names, a Japanese heraldic title falls outside the defined scope of the Society. Laurel said this in June 1994 in returing the Shire of Ryuugatani, and it holds true in this case as well:

...a Japanese place-name does not appear to fall within the defined scope of the Society, which is pre-17th Century Western culture (RfS I.1. See also "Scope of the Society: Period and Culture" in the Organizational Handbook, pp. 74-75). "Its domain includes Europe and areas that had contact with Europe during this period." (RfS I.1.) It was noted that while there was clearly some contact in very late period between Europe and Japan, and evidence that some few Japanese actually visited Europe, the contact between Europe and Japan was not great enough to justify a Japanese place-name in pre-17th C. Europe.

[Atlantia, Kingdom of, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-R]

Although the theme word Oni- is included in Solveig Thronderdottir's Name Construction in Medieval Japan, the theme is not dated to before 1600 in that work. No documentation was provided and none found that names using this theme are anything but modern. Barring such evidence, names constructed using this theme are not registerable. [Hiyama no Oniko, LoAR 06/2004, East-R]

LATIN

As documented, this name mixes English and Italian, which is one step from period practice. However, Hund notes that de Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani cites Elias as a Latinized form of the Italian Elia. Therefore, this name mixes a Latinized Italian and vernacular Italian mix. [Elias Loredan, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Ariadne de Glevum, the grammar of the byname is incorrect. Metron Ariston explains, "Since she is using a Latin locative form, the grammar of the phrase should be Latin as well. Since the preposition de is followed by the ablative, the name should be Ariadne de Glevo." We have made this change to fix the grammar. [Ariadne de Glevo, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

There was some question whether Erlan was actually a name. The submitter included evidence of the Latin Erlanus. While this is not definitive proof of Erlan as a vernacular form, we typically give the submitter the benefit of the doubt in similar situations. There is no reason not to do so here. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

As a name combining Old English and Latin or French is registerable... [Ældric de Logan, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Spurius Titinius Odessus Maximus, Metron Ariston notes, "Odessus is the name of a city and would not be used unmodified in this way as a cognomen. Instead it would be transformed into an adjectival form....using standard Latin rules for the formation on such locative adjectives would be Odessius." We have, therefore, changed the name to Spurius Titinius Odessius Maximus. [Spurius Titinius Odessius Maximus, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

[Domus Solis Ortis.] No documentation was submitted and none found that a Roman name meaning House of the Rising Sun or House of Sunrise followed Roman or Latin naming patterns for groups of people in period. Barring such documentation, this name is not registerable. [Artos Ancilis, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

In addition, there was a fixable problem with the given name. The summarization said that the given name Magdalea was the name of the learned woman from Erasmus's dialogue The Abbot and the Learned Lady (Abbatis et eruditae). However, the photocopy provided by the submitter as well as all other references to this work found by the College show the name of the Learned Lady as Magdalia. Barring documentation of the spelling Magdalea, that form is not registerable. However, the spelling Magdalia is a Latin name found in a well-known 16th C literary work distributed on the Continent and in England. Therefore, Magdalia is registerable in contexts where an English given name is registerable. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

Solin and Salomie's Repertorium Nominum Gentilium et Cognominum Latino is not in CoA Administrative Handbook Appendix H, Name Books That Do Not Require Photocopies to Laurel, but no photocopies from this source were included with the submission. If the commenters had not supplied further information about the names documented from this source, we would have been forced to return this name. Please make sure to include photocopies of pages from sources not on the no-photocopy list. [Titus Scipio Germanicus, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

This combines a Latinized Dutch and German byname in a single name, but such combinations are not considered a step from period practice.[Wilhelma von Ravensburg, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name was originally submitted as Caoimhin MacAindriú but it was changed at kingdom to Cáemgen MacAndreas. The submitter request a name authentic to Irish language/culture. As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal.

The documentation sited for the patronymic shows the name Andreas in a Latin context, not in a Gaelic context. Rowel notes, "The first example of Andreas I've found in the annals is in 1249 (Four Masters, C, M1249.2). The earliest example I've found of Aindriú [the Early Modern Irish Gaelic spelling for this name] was in 1318." [Caoimhghin MacAindriú, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-A]

The first Pope Anacletus was a saint, while the 2nd Anacletus was an anti-pope in the 12th C recognized in Scotland. Furthmore, the name is a Latin name making it a possibility as a devotional name for a monk or priest. However, as no examples have been found of the use of this name by Scots in the 13th C, it is not an authentic Scottish given name. [Anacletus McTerlach, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

We note that the grammar of the byname is in the nominitive form when it should be in the genitive (possessive) form. The correct form is uxor Draconis. [Ygraine uxor Draco, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-R]

LEGAL NAMES

The name Cameron is the submitter's legal middle name. Precedent says that, when a middle name is submitted under the legal name allowance, it is treated by type:

DeWayne is the submitter's middle name, not his given name. A Middle name is treated by type: if it is structurally a given name it can be used as a given name, but if it is structurally a surname it can only be used as a surname. DeWayne is structurally a surname so cannot be used as a given name. [DeWayne of Locks, 10/99 http://sca.org/heraldry/loar/1999/10/lar.html, R-Calontir]
Cameron, although occasionally used in the 20th century as a given name, is a surname by type. Therefore, it cannot be used as a given name unless it is the submitter's given name. [Cameron de Blakstan, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-R]

Sterling is the submitter's legal middle name. Middle names are registerable as given names under the mundan [sic] name allowance if they are given names by type. The submitter has included documentation for Sterling as a 12th C English given name. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

The submitter presented his SCA membership card as proof of legal name. In this case, such proof was not needed to register his name. We remind submissions heralds that an SCA membership card is not a legal document for purposes of demonstrating a legal given name. Had no documentation been found for Michael as a medieval name, a photocopy of a membership card would be insufficient to allow its registration under the legal name allowance. [Michael Magnus, LoAR 12/2004, Middle-A]

Cerelle is her legal middle name. As far as the College can determine, Cerelle is a given name by type; therefore, it is registerable as a given name under the legal name allowance. [Cerelle de Seyntlegger, LoAR 12/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Tara of Dragonwood, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses the submitter's legal given name, Tara, which is a name not used as a given name in period. Such names were ruled one step beyond period practice in January, 1996. [Tara of Dragonswood, LoAR 12/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This is clear of the submitter's legal name, David Scott by the edition of the article le. Administrative Handbook III.A.9 states "A small change in the name is sufficient for registration, such as the addition of a syllable ...", and an example states that Alan Miller does not conflict with Alan the Miller. It further states "However, a change to spelling without a change in pronunciation is not sufficient. For example, Alan Miller could not register the name Alan Miller or Allan Miller but he could register the name Alan the Miller." [David le Scot, LoAR 11/2004, Artemisia-A]

This name is two steps from period practice...Second, it uses the submitter's legal given name Stuart; this name is unattested as a given name in period. Names which were not used in period, but are registerable via the Legal Name Allowance, were ruled to be a a step beyond period practice (wierdness) in January 1996:

[W]e see no reason to distinguish between "SCA-compatible" names and other non-period names permitted under the provisions of RfS II.4 (Legal Names): both are allowed as concessions to modern sensibilities despite their inauthentic nature.

Beginning with the 5/96 meeting, therefore, use of two individually permissible non-period elements in a single name will be considered two weirdnesses and will be grounds for return. Such elements include non-period names allowed under the Legal Name Allowance as well as those names, apparently not used by human beings in period, that have been declared "SCA-compatible"... (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter to the January 1996 LoAR, pp. 3-4)

[Stuart Martin MacDonald, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

Chamayn is the submitter's legal middle name. Middle names can be derived from either given names or surnames; whether a middle name is registerable as a given name depends on its derivation and use. A web search found one non-fantasy usage of this name --again, as a middle name. The submitter believes it is a rendering of some sort of the Spanish given name, Ximena. No documentation was presented for this derivation, although none of the commenters argued against it. Therefore, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt that Chamyn [sic] is a given name in type. [Chamayn of Castile, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

The summarization stated that the submitter's legal given name is Melissa; however, no documentation was supplied supporting this claim. This means that the name Melissa must be documented to be registered. [Melissa the Poulteress, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

There was some question whether the submitted name was in conflict with her legal given name, Dianne Doria. The Administrative Handbook III.A.9 says "A small change in the name is sufficient for registration, such as the addition of a syllable or a spelling change that changes the pronunciation. However, a change to spelling without a change in pronunciation is not sufficient." So, if Dianne and Diana have different pronunciations, then the submitted name may be registered. Most American speakers believe that these two names are pronounced with a different number of syllables; Diana having three syllables, while Dianne has two. Personal experience has shown that women named Diana (Dy-ae-na) tend to become angry when called Dianne (Dy-an), showing that the two names are viewed modernly as having distinctly different pronunciations. Therefore, this name is sufficiently different from her legal given name for registration. [Diana Doria, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Áedán_Briscoe, ... as submitted this conflicts with his legal name, Aydin Bristow. The only difference in sound is in one letter in an unemphasized syllable. Similarly small changes have previously been ruled insufficient to clear conflict against a legal given name ... Ekwall, The Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, s.n. Briscoe dates the spelling Brisco to 1204 ... the addition of the article, de clears the conflict with his legal given name. Precedent, most recently upheld in February 2002 holds that "An SCA name must differ from a submitter's legal name by at least one syllable." The addition of the article provides that syllable. [Áedán de Brisco, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

LINGUA ANGLICA

The byname skullcleaver is a translation of the Old Norse hausakljúfr. Because the byname is documented in Old Norse, the Lingua Anglica rule allows us to register its English translation. [Galti skullcleaver, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

The byname the wise is a translation of the Old Norse in spaka. Because the byname is documented in Old Norse, the Lingua Anglica rule allows us to register its English translation. [Þórunn the wise, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

The submitter attempted to justify the byname as a Norse byname under lingua anglica. However the Lingua Anglica allowance requires that the byname be a translation of an attested byname in the original language. The cover letter that accompanied the January 1993 LoAR included a clarification of the Lingua Anglica allowance, including:

Less codified, but of long practice, has been the translation of epithets into our lingua franca. Again, this follows a common historian's usage: Harald I of Norway, for instance, is far better known as Harald Fairhair than by the untranslated Harald Haarfagr. Eric the Red, Philip the Good, Charles the Fat, all are translations of the period names, not the period names themselves. SCA names are permitted a similar translation: a simple epithet, documented as a period form, may be translated into English. (We prefer to register the untranslated form, but I concede that such rigor doesn't always serve our clients' best interests.) [Cover Letter for LoAR January 1993]

As no documentation of a Norse byname meaning 'the Irresponsible' was presented, the Lingua Anglica allowance does not apply here. [Aelfwyn the Irresponsible, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-R]

No documentation was provided and none found of a Russian byname meaning "indifferent"; therefore this name cannot be registered under the lingua anglica allowance. Furthermore, by precedent, overly abstract English bynames of this sort are not registerable:

Niobe the Forgetful. [May 2002 LoAR Atlantia-R] "The byname the Forgetful has been registered a total of seven times, most recently in May 1994. Since that time, there have been several rulings regarding abstract descriptive bynames, including:
[returning the nickname the Arronious] Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid, le Wis the wise, Badinteheved bad in the head, le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud, le Hardy the courageous, le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil, Blaksoule black-soul. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname. (Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade, 10/96 p. 8)

The same argument applies to the byname the Indifferent. [Vlad the Indifferent, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-R]

Some commenters suggested that the byname the Lucky was a translation of a Gaelic byname and, therefore, fell under the Lingua Anglica rule. However, for this rule to apply the byname being translated must be documented in the original language. This was not the case here. [Caol the Lucky, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Furthermore, the epithet "Toe Mangler" cannot be supported. To use an English epithet in an otherwise Arabic name, the epithet must be either a reasonable English descriptive byname or a translation of an Arabic descriptive byname. No evidence was provided and none found that "Toe Mangler" is either of these. Therefore, it is not registerable. [Haroun al-Rashid the Toe Mangler, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

LITERARY, LEGENDARY, and MYTHICAL NAMES

The given name Svava had previously been ruled unregisterable because it was found only as the name of a Valkyrie. However, the submitter has found the name used by a human character in one of the manuscripts of The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. While a mention in a single manuscript copy (the name is not found in all manuscripts of this saga) is not great documentation, it is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt to register this name. [Svava Þorgeirsdóttir, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name claims descent from the legendary smith Volundar, who manufactered the magical hammer and chariot of Thor, the Norse God of War. Although the name Volundar was documented from Lind, as far as we can tell all the cited references are to the legendary smith. Barring documentation that this name was used by ordinary humans in period, it is not registerable. [Tryn Völundsson, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

The name Finnéadan appears to be a unique name for a legendary character. Ó Corr´in and Maguire, Irish Names, says of this name "Finnétan was a lady of the Déisi and ancestress of many nobles of Ossory." When Ó Corráin and Maguire provide only information about a single bearer with no other information, this usually means that the person so described is the only known bearer of the name. We have been unable to find this name in any other source which strengthens the argument that this name is unique. Barring another example of this name, it cannot be registered. [Finnéadan ingen Ruadhan, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

The given name Laurana was documented on the LoI to 1655. This is outside our gray-area (1600-1650), and without an earlier citation, the name would be unregisterable. Bronwen noted, "This name appears in a work by Emanuel Forde with the title Parismus, the Renovmed Prince of Bohemia. His most famous, delectable, and pleasant Historie. Conteining His Noble Battailes fought against the Persians. His loue to Laurana, the Kings Daughter of Thessaly. And his straunge Aduentures in the Desolate Iland. With the miseries and miserable imprisonment, Laurana endured in the Iland of Rockes. And a description of the Chiualrie of the Phrygian Knight, Pollipus: and his constant loue to Uioletta which was published at London in 1598." This dates Laurana before 1600, making it registerable as an English literary name. [Laurana de Landa, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

The question was raised whether the name Aidan is reasonable as an English given name, since the Gaelic name Aodhán or Áedán fell out of popular use in Ireland before the 11th C. The saint in question appears as Aidanus in Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. As Bede was known and read in England throughout period, Aidanus is certainly registerable as a period name. As Aidan is the appropriate English vernacular form of the Latin Aidanus, this name is registerable as a literary name. [Aidan Ransford, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Teleri Cadarn, no documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that the name Teleri was used by humans in period. Gruffudd, Welsh Names for Children, derives the modern use of this name from the name of a river. While the name Teleri does appear in the Arthurian tale "Culhwch ac Olwen," an examination of this story shows that the name occurs once in passing when a character swears by a long list of names and events. Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature. However, Teleri is just a name mentioned in the course of the tale; it is not even the name of a character. Barring documentation that the name was used by humans in period, or that it is the name of a significant period literary character, it cannot be registered. The similar sounding name Eleri is found in Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany in the names list taken from Bartrum's Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts and dated examples from Gruffudd. We have changed the name to Eleri Cadarn in order to register it. [Eleri Cadarn, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

In addition, there was a fixable problem with the given name. The summarization said that the given name Magdalea was the name of the learned woman from Erasmus's dialogue The Abbot and the Learned Lady (Abbatis et eruditae). However, the photocopy provided by the submitter as well as all other references to this work found by the College show the name of the Learned Lady as Magdalia. Barring documentation of the spelling Magdalea, that form is not registerable. However, the spelling Magdalia is a Latin name found in a well-known 16th C literary work distributed on the Continent and in England. Therefore, Magdalia is registerable in contexts where an English given name is registerable. [Magdalea Mac an Ghabhann, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-R]

The name Melissa appears in the 16th C Italian poem Orlando Furioso. Unfortunately, the Melissa in Orlando Furioso is a fairy, not a human. Precedent of February 1999 says for a literary name to be registerable "it has to be a name of a human being in the story. God/dess, elf, dwarf, etc. names aren't usable." [Melissa the Poulteress, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

MANX

Submitted as Máel-dúin MacCormaicc, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th-10th C Manx language/culture and accepted minor changes. Unfortunately, no information is available for Manx names at that time. [Máel Dúin mac Cormaicc, LoAR 07/2004, An Tir-A]

The submitter requested authenticity for Manx language/culture. The question was raised whether Quilliam was a reasonable period Manx surname. Although no dated form of Quilliam was found, Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames says s.n. Qualter, "Manx names for MacWalter...Qualtrough 1430." Other Manx surnames names that follow this pattern are Quayle 1540 from MacFayle, Quine 1504 from Mac Cuinn, Quinnye 1429 from Mac Connaidh, Quyrke 1511 from Mac Cuirc. The evidence strongly suggests that Quilliam is a reasonable late period Manx surname. [Thomas Quilliam, LoAR 06/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Alastair Corum, no documentation was provided and none found that Corum is a medieval name. The submitter indicated by he would accept the byname Corran if Corum was not registerable; we have, therefore, made that change. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Corran date M'Corrin and Corrin in the Isle of Man in 1504, and Heather Rose Jones's article, "Manx Names in the Early 16th Century," has Mac Corran. Given this, the variant Corran seems reasonable. [Alastair Corran, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

MODERN NAMES

The submitter requested authenticity for Spanish language/culture. Although the given name Mercedes is a modern Spanish name, the earliest example we have for its use is in 1690. It is only because the given name is already registered to her that we can register it here. [Mercedes de Calafia, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

OBTRUSIVE NAMES

[Domus Solis Ortis.] No documentation was submitted and none found that a Roman name meaning House of the Rising Sun or House of Sunrise followed Roman or Latin naming patterns for groups of people in period. Barring such documentation, this name is not registerable. The commenters were divided about whether the name, even when translated into Latin, was intrusively modern. The translation into Latin should be sufficiently removed from the modern reference that, if proof were found that the name followed Roman naming practice, it should then be registerable. [Artos Ancilis, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

OLD NORSE

Submitted as Snæbj{o,}rn snjalløx Hákonsson, the descriptive byname is not formed according to Old Norse naming practice. All examples of compound bynames whose second element is a weapon have as their first element adjectives that are visually recognizable qualities of the weapon itself. Examples of "ax" names include descriptives of types or appearances of axes: breiðöx 'broad axe', skorbildr 'scoring axe', and svartleggja 'black-legged (handled) axe.' Such bynames would be understood as meaning "with the scoring axe" or "with the black-legged axe." The byname snjalløx, however, uses snjall 'quick' which is descriptive of the weapon's bearer rather than the weapon itself; the reasonable meaning here would be "quick with an axe." Although a Middle English example Snellesward "quick sword" was shown with such a meaning, evidence of a pattern in Middle English is not evidence of the same pattern in Old Norse. Barring documentation for this pattern in Old Norse bynames, the constructed byname snjalløx is not registerable. We have dropped this byname in order to register the name. [Snæbj{o,}rn Hákonarson, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

Old Norse grammar shows the correct genitive for Hákon is Hákonarson. We have made this change, and registered the name as Snæbj{o,}rn_Hákonarson. [Snæbj{o,}rn Hákonarson, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

...in Old Norse, names ending in -bj(o,)rn make their genitive -bjarnar. [Hallbera sneypir Vigbjarnardottir, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-A]

The byname is disallowed under RFS VI.2, Names Claiming Powers. You may not style yourself 'the sorceress' in the Society. Precedent set March 2001 says:

The byname means Wizard and thus violates RfS VI.2: Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous. Barring evidence that he is a wizard, or that this byname was used by normal humans in period, we have to return this.

This name is directly analogous. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

While not cause for return, there are grammatical, spelling, and transcription problems with the name. First, the spelling of the byname in the documentation is Seiðkona, not Sieðkona. Second, in Old Norse, bynames using in or inn are always weak adjectival forms, but Sieðkona [sic] is a noun meaning sorcoress or witch. Finally, by precedent, descriptive bynames in Old Norse are always transcribed in all lowercase. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Some submitters noted that the name contained two descriptive bynames, which had been unregisterable. However precedent, set in May 2002, states "a name using two non-patronymic bynames in Old Norse is registerable so long as the bynames could reasonably be used to simultaneously describe the same person." This is the case here. [Svanhild bogsveiga færeyska, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Svanhild bogsveigira færeyjaska, the bynames are not in the appropriate forms. The submitter documents bodsveigir [sic] from Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name and attempts to form a feminine version by adding an a to the end. While the instinct is good, she fails to remove the masculine "-ir" ending; the correct feminine form is bodsveiga [sic]. Similarly, the root for forming the byname meaning "from the Faeroes" is færey-; the byname meaning "woman from the Faeroes" is færeyska. We have changed the name to Svanhild bosveiga [sic] færeyska in order to correct the grammar. [Svanhild bogsveiga færeyska, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines English and Old Norse in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Dalla Jade, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

The byname skullcleaver is a translation of the Old Norse hausakljúfr. Because the byname is documented in Old Norse, the Lingua Anglica rule allows us to register its English translation. [Galti skullcleaver, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

The byname the wise is a translation of the Old Norse in spaka. Because the byname is documented in Old Norse, the Lingua Anglica rule allows us to register its English translation. [Þórunn the wise, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

This name mixes Old English and Old Norse; this is one step from period practice. [Wulfgar gerpir, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

[Award of the Norðband.] The word Norðband is not a reasonable construction. Although the definition of band in Zoega [sic], A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic is shown as bond, confederacy, it is not clear whether this refers to a group of people or to the contract that establishes the bond. The word bandmaðr, "confederate, bondman" strongly suggests that the latter definition is the correct one. In this case, the name simply does not make sense. For this name to be registerable, documentation of band in Old Norse unambiguously describing a group of people is needed. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

Submitted as Þorgautr Sveinnsson inn upplenzki, the patronymic is incorrectly formed. In Old Norse, the genitive of names ending in -nn are formed by transforming the ending letters to -ns. We have changed the name to Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki to correct the grammar. [Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

We note that this name means "Þorgautr, son of Sveinn from upplenzki." If he wants a name meaning "Þorgautr from upplenzki, son of Sveinn", then the name order would be Þorgautr inn upplenzki Sveinsson. [Þorgautr Sveinsson inn upplenzki, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Skarrgarðr, Canton of, the protheme Skarr- is unattested in Old Norse placenames. The similar sounding protheme Skorr-, meaning "rift" is found in the Landnamabok [sic] in the placenames Skorradalr and Skorraholt. Therefore, we have changed the name to Skorragarðr> in order to register it. [Skorragarðr, Canton of, LoAR 12/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Vallawulf Rurikson, the given name is intended as an Old Norse construction. However, as the letter w is not used in transcriptions of Old Norse, this name is not consistent with Old Norse spellings. Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name has the prepended byname Valla- and the given name Ulfr [sic]. We have, therefore, changed the given name to Vallaulfr in order to register it. [Vallaulfr Rurikson, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

...this name mixes Old Norse and English, which is one step from period practice. [Vallaulfr Rurikson, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

In addition, while there is evidence of the use of Old Norse names and words in English placenames, no documentation was submitted and none found for the use of medieval Danish in English placenames. There is a similar sounding element found in English placenames: Mills, A Dictionary of British [sic] Place-Names s.n. Ambleston has Amleston in 1230. Amlesmore is a similar sounding name to the one submitted. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Birna Rauða, the byname is in the strong adjectival form. According to Geirr Bassi, "The strong feminine is endingless, but root a becomes (o,)." In addition, precedent only allows the registration of Old Norse bynames in all lowercase. We have changed the name to Birna rauð to correct the grammar and make it consistent with precedent. If the submitter is interested in a weak adjectival form of the byname, we suggest in rauða. [Birna rauð, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Erlan Norðskáld, the proposed byname, Norðskáld, is not a plausible Old Norse byname and is not constructed following period Old Norse patterns for descriptive bynames. The intended meaning of this byname is "skald from the Northlands." However, no documentation was submitted and none found showing that compound bynames were formed by combining a locative protheme and an occupational deuterotheme. We do have two examples of individuals bearing both an occupational and a locative byname. These are from Lindorm Eriksson" The Bynames of the Viking Age Runic Inscriptions": Tólir bryti í róði (Tolir the steward of Roðr) and Þorkell Rekkr í Lundi (Þorkell Warrior of Lund). Zoegi [sic], A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic shows norðrland as a word for Iceland, or more particularly the northern region of Iceland. We have changed the name to Erlan skáld_í Norðrlandi to match these examples. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

As submitted, the name mixes Old Norse and Swedish; this is one step from period practice. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

The given name Svava had previously been ruled unregisterable because it was found only as the name of a Valkyrie. However, the submitter has found the name used by a human character in one of the manuscripts of The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. While a mention in a single manuscript copy (the name is not found in all manuscripts of this saga) is not great documentation, it is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt to register this name. [Svava Þorgeirsdóttir, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name claims descent from the legendary smith Volundar, who manufactered the magical hammer and chariot of Thor, the Norse God of War. Although the name Volundar was documented from Lind, as far as we can tell all the cited references are to the legendary smith. Barring documentation that this name was used by ordinary humans in period, it is not registerable. [Tryn Völundsson, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

In addition, the spelling of the given name, Tryn appears to be a modern Anglicized transcription. The form Triun, cited in the submitted documentation, is a much more accurate representation. If this name is resubmitted, we suggest that form of the given name. [Tryn Völundsson, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

This name combines an Old English name with an Old Norse name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Wulfric bláskegg, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Þorlákr bjarki Eiriksson, the submitted documentation shows the name from which the patronymic was formed as Eiríkr. Precedent holds that accents must either be used uniformly or dropped uniformly in Old Norse names. Therefore, we have added the accent back into the patronymic, giving Þorlákr bjarki Eiríksson. [Þorlákr bjarki Eiríksson, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

In Old Norse, adjectival bynames must agree in gender with the given name; the correct feminine version of the submitted byname is in ákafa. We have made this change to correct the grammar of the byname. [Eilina in áákafa, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the spelling Synnöve in period. Barring such documentation, this form is not registerable. There are several period variants of this name; we would change the given name to one of these forms, but the submitter will not accept changes. If the submitter is interested in an Old Norse name, Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, shows Sunnifa as an Old Norse form of this name. [Synnöve mána, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Svein Sutari Svithanda, the name contains two descriptive bynames, a practice that is very rare in Old Norse names. However, Golden Pillar notes the following precedent:

This name contains two non-patronymic bynames in Norse, which has previously been cause for return. Gunnvör silfrahárr (formerly Gunnora Hallakarva) found examples of people who were referred to using two non-patronymic bynames simultaneously. She provided the following examples and translations so each name may be viewed in context:

(1) Þórsteinn surts inn spaka (Thórsteinn Black the Wise) - Laxdæla saga (c. 1245), ch. 6. Ósk hét hin fjórða dóttir Þórsteins rauðs. Hún var móðir Þorsteins surts hins spaka er fann sumarauka. [Ósk was the name of the fourth daughter of Þórsteinn rauðr. She was the mother of Þórsteinn surts inn spaka, who found the "Summer eke".]

(2) Ari prests hins fróði (Ari the priest the wise) - Landnámabók ch. 83. Þórsteinn Hallsson var faðir Gyðríðar, móður Jóreiðar, móður Ara prests hins fróða. [Þórsteinn Hallsson was the father of Gyðríðr, who was the mother of Jóreiðr, who was the mother of Ari prests hins fróða.]

(3) Þórolfr Mostrarskeggr - Eyrbyggja saga ch. 3 (prepended and appended by-names) Hrólfr var höfðingi mikill og hinn mesti rausnarmaður. Hann varðveitti þar í eyjunni Þórshof og var mikill vinur Þórs og af því var hann Þórólfr kallaður. Hann var mikill maður og sterkur, fríður sýnum og hafði skegg mikið. Því var hann kallaður Mostrarskegg. [Hrólfr was a mighty chief, and a man of the greatest largesse. He had the ward of Thór's temple there in the island, and was a great friend of Thór, and therefore he was called Þórolfr. He was a big man and a strong, fair to look on, and had a great beard; therefore was he called Mostrarskeggr, and he was the noblest man in the island.

Given these examples, a name using two non-patronymic bynames in Old Norse is registerable so long as the bynames could reasonably be used to simultaneously describe the same person. In the case of the submitted name, the two bynames mean 'shrieking' and 'woman from the Orkney Islands'. These bynames have different meanings and could both have described the same person at the same point in her life. Therefore, this name is registerable. [Þórdís gjallandi eyverska, 05/02, A-Outlands]

Precedent requires that descriptive bynames in Old Norse be transcribed in all lowercase. Therefore, we have changed the name to Svein sutari svithanda; the name means "Svein the tanner, earthscorcher." [Svein sutari svithanda, LoAR 11/2004, Calontir-A]

The submitter attempted to justify the byname as a Norse byname under lingua anglica. However the Lingua Anglica allowance requires that the byname be a translation of an attested byname in the original language. The cover letter that accompanied the January 1993 LoAR included a clarification of the Lingua Anglica allowance, including:

Less codified, but of long practice, has been the translation of epithets into our lingua franca. Again, this follows a common historian's usage: Harald I of Norway, for instance, is far better known as Harald Fairhair than by the untranslated Harald Haarfagr. Eric the Red, Philip the Good, Charles the Fat, all are translations of the period names, not the period names themselves. SCA names are permitted a similar translation: a simple epithet, documented as a period form, may be translated into English. (We prefer to register the untranslated form, but I concede that such rigor doesn't always serve our clients' best interests.) [Cover Letter for LoAR January 1993]

As no documentation of a Norse byname meaning 'the Irresponsible' was presented, the Lingua Anglica allowance does not apply here. [Aelfwyn the Irresponsible, LoAR 11/2004, Ealdormere-R]

Originally submitted as Ulfarr inn frækni, it was changed in kingdom to Úlfarr inn fr{oe}kni to match the submitted documentation. However, Orle and Argent Snail both provided examples of the byname spelled frækna including "valiant, stouthearted." In addition, accents in Old Norse names are optional as long as they are used or dropped consistently. Therefore, we have change the name back to the originally submitted form. [Ulfarr inn frækni, LOAR 11/2004, East-A]

Geirr Bassi, The Old Norse Name, has this name as Þorkatla grafeld. We have changed the given name to this transcription to match the submitter documentation...[Þorkatla grafeld, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Kj{o,}tvi Thorgrimsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th-11th C Old Norse. Old Norse names are registerable either using all accents and other diacritical marks or none. In addition, an authentic Old Norse transcription would use a Þ instead of the modern Th. We have changed the name to Kj{o,}tví Þorgrimsson to reflect this. [Kj{o,}tví Þorgrimsson, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Björn inn svarti, the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse. Using the o-umlaut (ö) instead of the o-ogonek ({o,}) is a later convention that really only gained popularity in modern times because of the limitations of standard typefonts. We have changed the given name to Bj{o,}rn to follow the normal transcription system. [Bj{o,}rn inn svarti, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

[Ari svarthjálmr.] Submitted as Ari svartihjálmr, the question was raised whether svarti-, meaning black, swarthy, was used to describe the color of objects rather than the color of hair, skin, and fur. Geir T Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, http://www.northvegr.org/zoega, lists svartaðr "dyed black", and svart-leggja, an axe with a black handle;" this seems sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt. The examples found in Zoëga and those supplied by Orle from Cleasby, Richard and Guðbrandr Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary suggest that svarthjálmr is the correct formation for this name. We have made this change. We note that the nickname means "black helmet" not "dark helmet." [Aran Darkhelm, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Ragnarr Ulfsaxi, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th-10th C Anglo-Danish or Danish. The second name has several problems. The submitter formed this name by combining the protheme ulf-, found in Old Norse given names, with the name Saxi. However, no documentation was provided and none found that combining Ulf- with a random Norse given name is a valid pattern for forming a Norse name. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

As documented, Ulfsaxi should be a given name, but, we do not register names that consist only of two given names. The submitter does note a byname, sax that sounds similar to Saxi. Unfortunatly [sic], this cannot be substituted for -saxi since no documentation was provided and none found that Norse descriptive bynames were formed by combining ulf- with the words for random objects. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Sölvarr Brynjólfsson, in this case the transliteration ö is a modern convention for encoding o-ogonek; the typical SCA transcription for this character is {o,}. Because the submitter requested authenticity for 9th -12th Viking, and the o-ogenek is the character actually used to spell this name in the Landnamabok [sic], we have changed the spelling to S{o,}lvarr Brynjólfsson. [S{o,}lvarr Brynjólfsson, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

Submitted as Ádísa [sic] Hrefna Úlfsdóttir, the submitter allowed only minor changes. Hrefna is a feminine given names derived from the word hrafn. Geirr Bassi shows the prepended nickname Hrafn-, meaning raven, and lists other bird names as non-prepended bynames, including hegri "heron", hani "rooster", assa "eagle", and masi "seagull". He also lists kraka and kraku- as both a non-prepended and a prepended byname meaning "crow." Given these citations, we are giving the submitter the benefit of the doubt that hrafn can be used as a non-prepended byname. However, when non-prepended Old Norse bynames are transcribed, they are written in all lowercase. We have, therefore, changed this name to Adísa hrafn Úlfsdóttir to reflect this. [Adísa hrafn Úlfsdóttir, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

As Caithness in 1200 had significant contact with Scandinavia, an Old Norse name would be unremarkable in that place and time. [Gynna Viktorsdottir, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Gabriel andvaka Kjötvason, the special character in the patronymic is actually an o-ogonek, not an o-umlaut. We have corrected the transcription to Gabriel andvaka Kj{o,}tvason. [Gabriel andvaka Kj{o,}tvason, LoAR 08/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as R{o,}gnvaldr Sax, descriptive bynames in old Norse are transcribed in all lowercase (see the October 2002 Cover Letter for details). We have changed this name to R{o,}gnvaldr sax. [R{o,}gnvaldr sax, LoAR 08/2004, West-A]

The question was raised whether the name Thorin was used by humans in period. Jensen Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire cites a Grunekell f. Thorin 1066-69. [Thorin bjarnkarl, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Elizabet Alfinnsdottir von Rhine, this name has several problems. First, the byname combines the German von with the English spelling Rhine in violation of RfS III.1.a. A fully German form would be am Reine, dated to 1300 in Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. However, even with the locative in the fully German form, this name is two steps from period practice. The given name is Swedish and the byname is old Norse; this was ruled a step from period practice in 8/2002. Mixing German and Old Norse was ruled a step from period practice in 3/2004. Therefore, we have dropped the locative in order to register this name, leaving Elizabet Alfinnsdottir. [Elizabet Alfinnsdottir, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Current precedent holds that descriptive bynames in Old Norse names should be written in all lowercase, however, the capitalization of the descriptive byname is grandfathered to the submitter. [Styrbjorn Ulfhamr, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Vörsa-Hvitr eldr, the question was raised about whether two nicknames were registerable in the same Old Norse name. In May, 1996, Da'ud set this precedent:

The name was submitted as Blund-Úlfr Kleykir. Though we have no evidence for Old Norse use of more than one nickname at a time, there is some indication that at times a preposed nickname combined with the given name to produce what was effectively a new given name. We are therefore giving the name the benefit of the doubt, though we have followed what seems to have been normal documentary practice in fusing nickname and name.

The character ö is a modern internet transcription for o-oganek [sic] (a character that looks like an o with a tail); the College of Arms typically transcribes this character as {o,}. Therefore, we have made this transcription change and fused the nickname and the name, giving V{o,}rsehvitr eldr. [V{o,}rsehvitr eldr, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

ORDER NAMES

[Order of Apollo] No documentation was submitted and none found that period order names were formed using the names of non-christian-deities. However, the Barony already has Order of Athena registered to them; therefore, the pattern "Order of 'Greek god'" is grandfathered to them. [Angels, Barony of the, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

[Award of the Griffins Sword.] By precedent, Order names using the pattern "beast/monster's+attribute" must use an attribute normally associated with that beast or monster:

Order of the Griffin's Flame- A flame is not an attribute associated with a griffin, therefore we need to see evidence that Griffin's Flame is a reasonable name for an order(January 2000)

A sword is not an attribute normally associated with a griffin. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

[Iron Griffin Legion.] This does not follow a pattern found in period Order names. While there Project Ordenamen article presents the interpretation [color][item] as a pattern for period Order names, there are alternative interpretations. One is [color used in heraldry][heraldic charge]. We believe this better describes the Order names of this pattern.. The colors found in period order names, yellow, blue, green, white, and gold are all heraldic tinctures. The color/metal silver, which is SCA-compatible, also follows this pattern. Although iron is found as a color in the gray area, it is not found as a heraldic tincture. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

[Award of the Balefire.] This does not follow the pattern of period Order names. On the LoI, a balefire is described as a heraldic charge. However, no documentation was submitted that a charge known as a balefire was known and used in period or in modern heraldry. Furthermore, RFS VII.3. Period Artifacts. says, "Artifacts that were known in the period and domain of the Society may be registered in armory, provided they are depicted in their period forms." From the definition provided of a balefire, it is unclear what could make this charge uniquely identifiable as a heraldic charge distinct from a fire or flame. Barring such unique identifiability, balefire is not registerable as part of an Order name. [Northshield, Principality of, LoAR 01/2005, Northshield-R]

[Order of William Marshall.] This name does not follow a pattern of period order names. Several arguments were presented that this name should be a single step from period practice:

- There are orders named after people who are not saints. There is, in fact, one unambiguous example of this: the Order of Maria-Eleanora founded in 1632 and founded by Maria-Eleanor, the wife of Gustavus Adolphus. There is a second potential Order named after a non-saint -- the order which may be called Ordine Piano, the Pian Knights, or the Knights of Pius. This Order was founded by Papal Bull in 1559 by Pius IV. However, several things about this Order are unclear. First, it is unclear whether this Order was named for its founder, Pius IV or for Saint Pius I, whose name was adopted by this pope, or wheter it just uses the word "Pius" or "Pii" (meaning pious) in the Order name. In fact, the original name of the Order is unclear. Neville, Early Orders of Knighthood and Chivalry suggests "Order of Pius" (Ordine Piano), while other sources suggest "Devout Knights" might be a better translation. Even if we assume that Pius is used as a given name, two Order names, one of which is in the gray area, suggest, at best, that Orders named after the person who created the Order might follow a legitimate pattern, although rare enough to be a step from period practice. However, it is not enough to suggest that naming an Order after an admired third party is a pattern found in period Order naming practice.

- That there are Order names of the form <given>+<byname>. Examples included Saint Thomas of Canterbury and Saint John Lateran. However, this uses syntax while ignoring semantics. When a Saint's name is used with a second name in period, it is because this is the usual way of identifying this particular saint. Thus, semantically a name form this is still Order of Saint's name, even if sytanctically it is "Order of <given>+<byname>. Therefore, this does not really support order names using secular people's names.

- Some period Orders that use Saint's names without the word Saint. Four examples are given: Orders using the name of the Virgin Mary, Orders using the name Jesus, the Order of Madelaine, and the Order of Catherine of Mount Sinai. Neville gives the name of the Order of Madelaine as The Order of St. Mary Magadlen. I strongly suspect that the lack of "saint" in the Order of Catherine of Mount Sinai is an errata in Neville, as all examples of this Order name I have found outside of Neville show it as Order of Saint Catherine of Mount Sinai. While Orders dedicated to Jesus and Mary do not use the word "saint", the still follow the semantic pattern [Order of "holy name"]. In Christian literature, Jesus is never referred to as a Saint Jesus, and Mary is a special case from which we cannot draw a conclusion that could be applied to other saints. We are unwilling to extrapolate a pattern from these two name.

- Religious style order names are offensive to many people. This is true. However, this is an argument against registering saint's name, not an argument for opening order names to patterns that the available data does not support.

[Drachenwald, Kingdom of, LoAR 10/2004, Drachenwald-R]

[Company of Gesters.] Listed on the LoI as an Order name, the forms showed this was intended as a guild name. We note that the designator "Company is a designator that applies only to household names. [Dun Carraig, Barony of, 10/99, A-Atlantia]". [Stonemarche, Barony of, LoAR 09/2004, East-R]

[Order of Edwards Mirror] The question raised here is whether an order name using the secular name+object pattern is consistent with period naming practices for Order names. To determine this requires an examination of known Order names and the practice of Order naming within the Society.

Is there evidence that names of regular people were used to form Order names in period? Neither the submitter nor the College have provided any. The earliest Order named for a secular person we were able to find evidence for was the Order of Maria Therese founded in 1758, well outside our period. Meradudd Cethin, "Project Ordensnamen" has one possible counterexample, Order of Godefroy. However, this seems to be a misinterpretation of the source, Great European Orders, http://www.chivalricorders.org/vatican/holysep.htm, which says of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher, "Several historians of the Order have attributed the actual foundation of the Order to Godefroy, Duke of Bouillon, first Christian King of Jerusalem, after the liberation of Jerusalem in 1099."

Is there evidence that Saint's names appeared in Order names or in common usage or Order names without the word Saint? There are no examples in the "Project Ordensnamen" collection showing a Saint's name without the identifying title.

So, the formation is not found in period, but does it follow a period pattern? That depends on how you interpret the available examples. Take, for example, The Order of Saint James of the Shell. On one level the pattern for this order name is holy-name+object. On this level, the jump to non-holy-name + object seems to be only a single step. However, there is an alternative and somewhat more descriptive interpretation: Saint or Object of Religious Veneration; the formation holy-name + object then becomes an interpretation of the structure of the saint's or relics signifier, not an intpretation of the structure of the Order name itself. Under this interpretation, the formation secular name+object bears far less similarity to a period order name formation.

Because Order names of the form secular name+object are not found in period and do not follow period models, they are not registerable. [One Thousand Eyes, Barony of, LoAR 07/2004, Artemisia-R]

PLACE NAMES & TOPOGRAPHIC ELEMENTS

Submitted as Skarrgarðr, Canton of, the protheme Skarr- is unattested in Old Norse placenames. The similar sounding protheme Skorr-, meaning "rift" is found in the Landnamabok [sic] in the placenames Skorradalr and Skorraholt. Therefore, we have changed the name to Skorragarðr> in order to register it. [Skorragarðr, Canton of, LoAR 12/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Avelyn of the Oak_Grove, no examples were found of placenames or locatives with either the prothemes Oak-/Oke-/Oken- and the deuterotheme -grove with a space between protheme and deuterotheme. In addition, the form of this name is a locative rather than a generic topographic; in this case the article the is not used. We have changed the name to Avelyn of_Oakgrove to match period English naming practice. [Avelyn of Oakgrove, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

In addition, while there is evidence of the use of Old Norse names and words in English placenames, no documentation was submitted and none found for the use of medieval Danish in English placenames. There is a similar sounding element found in English placenames: Mills, A Dictionary of British [sic] Place-Names s.n. Ambleston has Amleston in 1230. Amlesmore is a similar sounding name to the one submitted. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Listed on the LoI as Owlsherste, Shire of, the forms showed Owlsherst, Shire of. Mills, A Dictionary of English Place Names, show Tigelherst 1167 (s.n. Tilehurst), Saxingherste 1180 (s.n. Sissinghurst), and Schettokesherst 1239 (s.n. Shadoxhurst). Given this documentation, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Owlsherst, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Finally, although there are many examples of placenames of the form "placename on the rivername" in English, there is no evidence locative bynames were ever formed using such phrases. We generally allow attested English placenames to be used as English locative bynames because there is a well attested pattern of such translations. However, because there is no evidence for complete phrase placenames being used as locative bynames, such names used as bynames are a step beyond period practice. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Also, and more important, no documentation was provided that Dar el Beida (or a variant thereof) was the name of this place in period. Although the place known today as Casablanca existed in period, its name in Arabic until the 16th C was Anfa. The town was razed, rebuilt, and renamed Casa Branca by the Portuguese in the 16th C, but did not acquire its present Spanish and Arabic name until the late 18th C. Barring evidence that this is a period name for this place or that it follows period Arabic placename patterns, locative bynames based on Dar el-Beida cannot be registered. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

There was some question whether Argyll was a unique surname of the Campbells based on the statement from Black, "Sir Duncan Campbell...created Lord Campbell in 1445, was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll..." However, the full quote makes it clear that Argyll is adopted as a locative, "Sir Duncan Cambell or Cambelle of Lochow,...was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll in addition to, and sometimes in place of Lochow." There is a well attested pattern of inherited surnames in Scotland that are formed from placenames; although Argyll is not documented as a surname, it is documented as a placename. [Angus Argyll of Clyde, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as West Dragonshire, Shire of, this is an appeal of the return of this name in July, 2003. The name was returned for these reasons:

The theme -shire is a designator, and therefore, invisible to the consideration of the name. Removing it leaves West Dragon, and the element Dragon is not registerable without the addition of a toponomyic theme such as -ton or -ham as a second element.

English shire names were not formed by adding a compass direction to the shire name.

The appeal provided the name of several English shires that contain compass direction words in the name, and argues that the group wishes to use -shire as the toponymic theme in its name rather than as the designator. If West Dragonshire is not registerable, the shire indicated they would accept West Dragoningshire/Shire of West Dragoning.

Several examples of shire names containing compass directions were given, including Northamptonshire, Essexshire, Suffolkshire. This clearly shows that compass directions appears in names of English shires; therefore, shire names containing compass directions are, certainly, registerable. However, the main issue of the previous return, supported by further research, is that in English placenames neither compass direction elements nor the theme shire are found modifying name elements that are not themselves already valid placenames. Because Dragon is not in itself a valid placename, West Dragon, Dragonshire, and West Dragonshire are also not valid placenames.

The alternative form suggested by the shire, West Dragoningshire does seem to follow English placenaming patterns. The element Dragoning using the theme -ing which is found in English placenames derived from personal names, from action words, and from some toponymic elements. Therefore, its use with Dragon should be acceptable, if unlikely. We have, therefore, registered this form. Because this name uses the SCA-compatible theme dragon, it is one step from period practice. [West Dragoningshire, LoAR 11/2004, Drachenwald-R]

This name is intended to mean "valley of the black squirrel" in Gaelic. There was some question whether black squirrels existed in the British Isles in period. Squirrel biology suggests that this is possible. While the red squirrel is the only species native to the British Isles, the "Friends of the Red Squirrel" web site, http://www.lakesnw.co.uk/environment/redsquirrels.htm, states "Red squirrels can vary between orange-red and nearly black." Therefore, this should be a reasonable name for a valley with a concentration of black-colored red squirrels. [Gleann nam Feorag Dhuibhe, Canton of, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Luckily, the byname can be changed so that it is constructed using period elements and following period English placename constructions. Dragon is documented as an English surname in Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames s.n. Dragon, with Walter Dragon in 1221. By precedent:

When family names, as opposed to given names, are used in English placenames, the family name usually comes after the descriptive feature. However, Mills does have some examples of "family name+topographic", including s.n. Towersey, Turrisey, "of the Tower family, Towers' eg" 1240; s.n. Tey, Great, Merkys Tey, "Tege of the de Merck family" 1475; s.n. Leigh Bessilles Lee, " Leigh of the Bessil family" 1539. Thus, Rivermoor is not correct, because the family name is not in the genitive (possessive) case here. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames cite a John Riuer in 1327, so an appropriate form of a name meaing "Moor of the River family" is Riversmor(e) or Rivers Mor(e) [Rivermoor, Shire of, 05/2004, A-Trimaris]

In keeping with this precedent, we have changed this name to Tara Dragonswood. [Tara of Dragonswood, LoAR 10/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Drogo of Black Forge, the grammar of the byname marks it as a placename. However, no evidence was found of the use of the element Forge in compound English placenames. Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames s.n. Forge, lists a Ralph del Forge in 1297. We have changed the byname to that form in order to register the name. [Drogo del Forge, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

The byname, Mountvoir, is not a plausible placename. The submitter wished a placename meaning "mountain view" and constructed the name from parts of English names that originally derived from French placenames. However, no documentation was submitted or any found that a specific geographic feature, such as a mountain is a reasonable modifier for "view" in period placenames. A search of Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames, reveals only two placenames using the deuterotheme -voir, Belvoir, "beautiful view", and Belvedere, which is a form of Belvoir. Reaney and Wilson and Ekwall show few names using the prototheme mount- or mont and all either derived from French placenames or have a meaning other than the one desired by the submitter. Dauzat and Rostaing, Dictionnnaire étymologique des nom de lieux en France, s.n. Mons has several pages of names using the protheme Mont-. These include names formed from names of regions, names of villages, personal names, descriptive features of a mountain, military features of a mountain, but no names or themes that would support a name with the desired meaning. Barring evidence of such a name or such a naming pattern in either French or English, this name cannot be registered. [Thomas Mountvoir, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as Fox Vale, Shire of, the group requested an authentic medieval name meaning "Fox Valley." All documentation supplied for English placenames using these elements showed the descriptive and topographic elements merged into a single word. We have changed this branch name to Foxvale to match the formations shown in the documentation. [Foxvale, Shire of, LoAR 09/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as House Oakenhammer, no documentation was provided for -hammer or -hamer as a deuterotheme. Although the submitter asserts that Ekwall includes several examples of such names, none were cited, nor did an examination of Ekwall and Mills discover any examples. However, both of these works show numerous examples of the deuterotheme -ham "homestead, or village" or -ham(m), "meadow, or enclosed plot." Ekwall, s.n. Woodham has Wodehamme (ham in/near a wood) in 1370, s.n. Withyham, Withihame (willow ham) in 1330, and s.n. Parham, Pereham (ham where pears grow) in 1206. We have, therefore, changed this name to Oakenham, a constructed name of similar sound. [Aurelia Aurifaber, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

The byname, of Silverleaf, is not consistent with period English placename patterns. A search through Mills, A Dictionary of English Placenames shows one example of a placename using the word leaf; Whyteleaf dated to 1839. Without documentation that the theme leaf was used in period English placenames, it cannot be registered as part of a constructed English placename. The submitted documentation supports the nickname Silverleaf. To change the byname from a locative to a nickname, we would drop the preposition of. However, the submitter will not accept changes. [Elissent of Silverleaf, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-R]

The submitter proposed the form Maccuswael as a variant of Maccuswel based on the statement in Black, Surnames of Scotland, that wael is the Old English word for well or pool. In this instance, Black is mistaken. According to the OED wael is an Old English word for a ridge or wale; the Old English word for pool is wæl. As there is no evidence that the "Æ" and "ae" are interchangable in Old English, this variant is not a valid spelling for this name. Black, s.n. Maxwell lists a John de Maccuswel in 1210; we have changed his name to Donecan de Maccusel in order to register it. [Donecan de Maccuswel, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Tir-y-Cwningen is a post-period form of this name. The submitted documentation shows several examples of Tir-y- names, but the earliest of them dates to 1666. The documentation dates the form Tireconynger to 1472. To change the locative to this form would be a major change which the submitter will not accept. Therefore, the name must be returned. [Dobin Tir-y-Cwningen, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Betha of Walnut Vale, the byname was justified as a "treename + generic topographic" construction. However, according to the OED, the word Walnut by itself was not used as a tree name until 1600; all earlier citations are for the name of the nut. This makes it extremely unlikely that this is a "tree + generic topographic" construction. However, the OED shows walnotetre in 1400 and Walnott tree in 1483. We have changed the name to Betha of Walnott tree Vale in order to follow period practice. [Betha of Walnott tree Vale, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Some commentors questioned whether Brerecliffe was a reasonable English placename. Brerecliffe is a reasonable 16th C form of Briercliffe, the header form in Ekwall, The Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names. The OED shows several examples of brere in the 15th and 16th C. It also shows Kliffes in 1300, cliffes in 1550 and 1600, and cliffe in 1483. [Blanche Brerecliffe, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

[Black Isle Academy.] Two questions were raised by this submission: whether a household name of the form "placename+Academy" was reasonable, and whether Black Isle was a reasonable placename.

Black is a common protheme in English locatives. Examples from Reaney and Wilson include Blackhale in 1332 (s.n. Blackhall), Blackmore in 1576 (s.n. Blackmore), and Blackstan in 1235 (s.n. Blackston); Julie Stampnitzky, "Surnames in Durham and Northumberland, 1521-1615" has these examples in the 16th C: Blackburne, Blackwell, and Blackye. Siren notes "The spelling Isle is found in 1086 (the listing is I(s)le) and is found again in late period in the 1593 Isle of Doges Ferm (Mills s.n. Isle of Dogs). Therefore, Black Isle is constructed using period patterns and spellings. This makes Black Isle Academy a reasonable household name using the established pattern "placename+Academy." [Janusch der Wasserman, LoAR 07/2004, Northshield-A]

No evidence was submitted and none found that Kellerwald a period placename or that it was constructed according to period German place name or forest name patterns. Blaeu's Atlas, published in 1635, contains a map showing the area where the Nationalpark Kellerwald Ederseete is located. However, scanning the maps of Germany from Blaeu's Atlas revealed no placename Kellerwald in that area. Nor does this name match a pattern of forest names. A scan of these maps and of Brechenmacher, Etymologisches Woerterbuch der deutschen Familiennamen shows forest names based on names of rivers that run through them (Spre waldt), forest names based on descriptions (Schwartzwald, Oderwaldt, Freywalde) and forest names based on local placenames (Thuninger Waldt, Gehrigswaldt. None were found combining occupation+wald or unmistakably surname+wald. [Philipp von Kellerwald, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

The question was raised whether Glen Rathlin was too close to Isle of Rathlin; the latter is a placename in the territory owned by this group. The Administrative Handbook section III.A.9 says "No name or device will be registered to a submitter if it is identical to a name or device used by the submitter for purposes of identification outside of a Society context." Glen and Isle are different in sound, appearance, and meaning. This would be sufficient to clear conflict between two SCA branch names, and we see no reason why the same standard would not apply here. [Glen Rathlin, Shire of, LoAR 06/2004, Drachenwald-A]

No evidence was provided and none found that a name meaning "Gathering of the Nine Expectations" follows a pattern found in period Scottish placenames. The documentation cited examples of placenames using Aonach from Watson, The Celtic Placenames of Scotland; these examples include an t-Aonach "the fair", Blàr an Aonaich "plain of the fair", and Aonachán probably "little fair". None use an abstract emotional designation such as "of the Nine Expectations." According to Johnston, The Place-names of Scotland, Gaelic placenames are almost always simple descriptives, "the majority of Celtic names give either the simplest possible description of the site named, or describe some prominent feature, or else the colouring or appearance of it as it strikes the eye." This is an excellent maxim to keep in mind when forming Gaelic placenames. [Aonach na Naoi n-Duileach, Shire of, LoAR 06/2004, Middle-R]

POLISH

Submitted as Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, Nebuly notes:

Although locative bynames formed using the preposition z do appear in period Polish, the construction is far more typical of Czech. Poles used the suffix -ski/-ska far more frequently...

The biggest headache with using the explicit locative form is that the object of the preposition z must be put into the genitive, which is never easy in Polish. The genitive ending depends not only on the gender of the object (masculine, feminine, or neuter) which cannot always be determined by its ending (some masculine nouns and in -a), but also depends upon the ultimate etymological derivation of the noun, its current function, the value (hard or soft) of the final consonant and which vowels happen to follow, and whether the noun is inherently "alive" or inherently "plural". My best guess in this case is that the genitive of Gosprzydowa is Gosprzydowy.

We have changed the name to Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowy in order to correct the grammar. We note that Miros{l/}awa Gosprzydowska is a much more usual form of this name; however, it is a bigger change and the submitter did not request authenticity. [Miros{l/}awa z Gosprzydowa, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

[El{z.}bieta Piekarska] Submitted as El{zo}bieta Piekarska, the LoI notes that {zo} is Da'ud notation for a z with a ring above the letter. This is a misinterpretation of the z-kropka character, which is a z with a dot over it (kropka being the Polish word for "dot"). The z-kropka is the last letter in the Polish alphabet and is pronounced like the "zh" sound in "pleasure." There is no officially defined notation for the z-kropka, so we are going to define one. The practice of the Da'ud notation and of the extensions to it made by the Laurel office is to make the additional notation mark as similar to the accent or modification to the base Roman letter as possible. Therefore, we are proclaiming {z.} is the Dau'd style notation that the Laurel office will use for the z-kropka character. [Jan Starszy, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Although the cited Web site shows that B{e,}kart is a modern Polish word meaning "bastard", no documentation was provided and none found to suggest that the word B{e,}kart was used as a byname in period, that it follows a pattern found in descriptive Polish bynames in period, or that it is even a period word. Barring such documentation, this byname is not registerable. [Mikolaj B{e,}kart, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-R]

PORTUGUESE

This name combines Arabic and Portuguese in the same name, which is one step from period practice. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

PRESUMPTION

The byname is disallowed under RFS VI.2, Names Claiming Powers. You may not style yourself 'the sorceress' in the Society. Precedent set March 2001 says:

The byname means Wizard and thus violates RfS VI.2: Names containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous. Barring evidence that he is a wizard, or that this byname was used by normal humans in period, we have to return this.

This name is directly analogous. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

[Clann Lochlainn Mor.] This is presumptous of the real-world Clann Lochlainn. While the descriptive element Mor clears the two names of conflict, the founder of the real-world Clann Lochlainn is, according to the submitter's documentation, Lochlainn Mor. Therefore, this claim is identical to the one of the real-world clan. If the submitter wishes to remove the presumption, we suggest choosing a different descriptive byname. Clann Lochlain Dubh, for example, would not be presumptous. [Santin Westmerland of Ravenstonedale, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-R]

The given name Svava had previously been ruled unregisterable because it was found only as the name of a Valkyrie. However, the submitter has found the name used by a human character in one of the manuscripts of The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. While a mention in a single manuscript copy (the name is not found in all manuscripts of this saga) is not great documentation, it is sufficient to give the submitter the benefit of the doubt to register this name. [Svava Þorgeirsdóttir, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

[House of Hunter.] This name implies that the submitter is the head of the real-world Clan Hunter, and so violates RfS VI.1, "Names Claiming Rank", which states, "Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous." (Designators, such as Keep and Clan, are transparent for conflict and presumption purposes.) [Thomas Sinclair, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-R]

This name is presumptous of Mugai Nyodai. Mugai Nyodai is the first female Zen master in Japan and is considered one of the great Matriarchs of Zen Buddhism. She is also the founder of the Keiji convent. While the names do not conflict, combining part of the homei, or Buddhist religious name, of this important woman and the name of the convent she founded creates too strong a reference to the historical person. [Keaiji no Nyûdô Nyôdai, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Rhodri ap Tewdwr Awenydd, several commenters questioned whether Awenydd, which was documented as meaning soothsayer or medium, was a claim to supernatural powers. Such claims are forbidden by RfS VI.2, which says "Society names may not claim divine descent, superhuman abilities or powers that the submitter does not actually possess." The dictionary definition of the word awenydd is simply "poet"; for example, the word is found with that meaning in the title of a book of Welsh poetry, R. S. Thomas, Y Caer Awenydd (R. S. Thomas, the Great Poet). However, a Web search shows a great number of English language sites that believe and use this word in the way defined by the submitter's documentation -- as a soothsayer, magician, or medium. As such, then, the use of Awenydd as a byname is a claim to superhuman abilities and is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered the name as Rhodri ap Tewdwr. [Rhodri ap Tewdwr, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

The question was raised whether the byname Halvedievel is a violation of RfS VI.2, which says "Society names may not claim device descent, superhuman abilities or powers that the submitter does not actually possess." If we were to take the name literally (as, for example, one would in a Japanese anime), then yes, this name would be a claim to be of non-human descent. However, it is a common practice in English to call a naughty child a "little devil"; it is a common analogous nickname. Just like the naughty child, it is extremely unlikely that the nickname Halvedievel refers to the descent rather than the behaviour of the person so named. Therefore, the name is registerable. [Wulfric Halvedievel, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

The name means "ruler/mistress of Samarina." While Kira is a given name, it is also a word meaning "ruler/mistress." Its combination with a placename implies that the bearer is the ruler of that place. RfS VI.1 says:

Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous. Titles like Earl and Duke generally may not be used as Society names, even if the title is the submitters legal name. Names documented to have been used in period may be used, even if they were derived from titles, provided there is no suggestion of territorial claim or explicit assertion of rank. For example, Regina the Laundress is acceptable but Regina of Germany is not.

[Kira Samarina, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-R]

This name is not a claim to be the daughter of Morgan ap Rhys ap Bran under RfS VI.3 "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered." By our rules, Morgan ap Rhys and Morgan ap Rhys ap Bran are clear of conflict; this means they can denote two different people. Since the name Morgan ap Rhys is not registered, claiming to be his daughter is not presumptuous. [Aluara verch Morgan ap Rhys, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

This name alludes strongly enough to the figure of history and romance, Alexander the Great, to constitute infringement. Such names were ruled unregisterable in October 1991. The two names do not conflict. The Great is a descriptive byname while of Greatness is a locative byname, and the names are significantly different in sound and appearance. However, every commentor and every person at the decision meeting remarked on the connection, and most found it obtrusive or presumptuous.

If the submitter included a second byname, this would remove the allusion. Any English patronymic except Philip would do, as would an occupational byname that does not allude to military prowess or fame. Some examples are Alexander Thatcher of Greatness (Reaney and Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Thatcher list a John Thatcher in 1327) or Alexander Saunderson of Greatness (Reaney and Wilson, s.n. Sanderson lists an Adam Saunderson in 1349). [Alexander of Greatness, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

Returned for presumption against the Arthurian hero, Tristram of Cornwall. Several of the commenters remarked that this name was a claim to be the legendary hero, violating RfS VI.3, "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered." Though this submission is clear of conflict with the Arthurian hero by addition of the element Irenfest, and we know of no evidence that the Arthurian hero Tristram was ever called Irenfest, Tristram was a knight of the Round Table and the descriptive byname Irenfest 'iron fist' is one that would be appropriate for this knight. Therefore, this name, as a whole, is overly allusive of the Arthurian hero and, therefore, presumptuous. Over alluding to a protected person in a name has long been cause for return. We would drop the locative byname, leaving Trystrem Irenfest, but the submitter would not accept major changes. [Trystrem Irenfest de Cornwale, LoAR 08/2004, An Tir-R]

Submitted as Eadan maol Cécht, the submitter requested authenticity for 12th C Irish. No documentation was submitted and none found that the name Cécht was used by humans in period; all examples found by the College referred to the demigod Dian Cecht, or to his offspring. Barring evidence that this name was used by humans, it cannot be registered as either a given name or as a patronymic. Ó Corrain [sic] and Maguire, Irish Names, note that Etan is the daughter of Dian Cecht. Therefore, combining the name Eadan or Etan with a patronymic or other relational byname using the name Cecht is presumptuous. [Eadan maol, LOAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

[House Lochiel] This is presumptous of the title of the Chief of Clan Cameron, which according to the submitter's own documentation is Lochiel. This name implies that the submitter is head of the real-world Clan Cameron and so violates RfS VI.1, "Names Claiming Rank", which states, "Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous. [Bran of Lochiel, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-R]

Submitted as Svava in litla, this name is presumptous according to the Rules for Submissions VI.2. which says "nmes [sic] containing elements that allude to powers that the submitter does not possess are considered presumptuous... Such claims include...given names that were never used by humans, like the names of some Giants or Dwarves in Norse mythology." According to the submitted documentation, Svava is a Valkyrie; no documentation was submitted or any found that this name was ever used by humans. We have changed the given name to Svana, a name with a similar look and feel found in the Landnámabók. [Svana in litla, LoAR 07/2004, An Tir-A]

The question was raised whether this name is a claim of relationship with Anastasiia Ivanova Petreshalova listed earlier in this letter. The bynames strongly suggests they are sisters. RfS VI.3 says "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered...Explicit claims to descend from a particular person, such as Edwin fitzWilliam Marshall or Rhys ap Cariadoc of the Bow will not be registered... In some cases a unique name, surname, or epithet is so closely related to an individual that its use alone can imply relationship to that individual. There is only one family that uses the name Baggins of Bag End , so Joan Baggins of Bag End would not be appropriate." This clearly defines "close relationship" as being the child or parent of a protected name or using a well-known byname unique to a particular family. Neither is the case here, therefore, this name does not violate RfS VI.3. [Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name is tantamount to a claim to be Ygraine, wife of Uther, Pendragon, and mother of Arthur. Pendragon is not a surname, but a title meaning "Chief of the Dragon;" the name Draco is a form of and means Dragon.

We note that while a name of the form "Ygraine, wife of Dragon" is presumptuous, a name of the form "Ygraine, daughter of non-Arthurian-name, wife of Dragon" should be registerable. We suggest that she finds a patronymic unrelated to Arthurian literature and add that to her name. [Ygraine uxor Draco, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-R]

The question was raised whether the use of the surname MacQueen or its variants in an SCA name is presumptous. This precedent is directly relevent to this question:

[Registering Mark FitzRoy.] RfS VI.1. states that "Names documented to have been used in period may be used, even if they were derived from titles, provided there is no suggestion of territorial claim or explicit assertion of rank." FitzRoy meets that criteria. RfS VI.3. states that "Names that unmistakably imply identity with or close relationship to a protected person or literary character will generally not be registered." There is no implication of "identity with or close relationship to" any protected individual or character as used here. Consequently, the surname here is not considered pretentious. [6/94, p.8]

In this case, the surname may be interpreted by English speakers as "son of the Queen", but that is because it is a phonetic rendering. The name in Gaelic is Mac Shuibhne, whose written form carries no hint of presumption. [Dorothea M'Queyn, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The name is returned for presumption against Harun al-Rashid. al-Jamal says it best:

Harun al-Rashid is arguably the very best-known medieval Arab [he was not "caliph of Persia", as the LoI states, and he did not live in Persia. He ruled the entire Muslim world at that time from Bagdad which, as we should all know by now, is in Iraq] after (and maybe even before) Muhammad in the West; more than Saladin, more than Baybars, more than 'Antar, people know the name Harun al-Rashid. That being the case, to attempt to register that name and clear it of conflict by the addition of a non-period, non-Arabic byname is simply being disingenuous. No one hearing the first two parts of the name is going to think of anyone other than the 'Abbasid caliph, so the problem is not conflict, but presumption.

[Haroun al-Rashid the Toe Mangler, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

RUSSIAN

As registered, the name contains two Christian given names. The use of two Christian names in a Russian name is a one step from period practice:

The submitter requested authenticity for 14th-15th C Russia and allowed any changes. Both Anton and Ivan are Christian names. Having two Christian names in a Russian name was ruled a weirdness in the June 1997 LoAR. An authentic name for this time period would have only a single Christian name. [Anton Ivan Stanislavich, 02/02, A-Æthelmearc]

If the submitter is interested in an authentic Russian name, we suggest Aleksei Rusiian Nikolaev. Rusiian is a name of Slavic origin, and we have examples of double given names in Russian combining a Christian given name and a Russian or Slavic given name. [Aleksei Nikolai Rusianov, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Aleksei Nikolai Rusian, this name contains three given names and no bynames. RfS III.2.a says "A personal name must contain a g iven name and at least one byname." Therefore, we have changed the third given name to the patronymic form, giving Aleksei Nikolai Rusianov. [A leksei Nikolai Rusianov, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Nikolaevna doch' Svetokhna, no documentation was submitted and none found for the patronymic preceeding the given name in Russian naming practices. We have changed the name to Svetokhna Nikolaevna doch' to follow documented Russian naming practices. [Svetokhna Nikolaevna doch', LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Taran of Azov, the locative combines Russian and English in a single name phrase. Therefore, we have changed the name to the completely Russian Taran z Azov. [Taran z Azov, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Raina Iskramor, the submitter suggested that Iskramor was justified as a descriptive byname. However, the lists of themes in Wickenden, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names are those found in given names; Wickenden does not address the formation of descriptive bynames in this section. Furthermore, the example given for this theme, Iskrets, shows the terminal a mutating to an e. Iskremor is a properly constructed given name using the themes Iskra and Mor. However, as submitted, the name consists of two given names and no bynames. We have changed the name to Raina Iskremorova, which corrects the formation of the byname and changes it to a patronymic. [Raina Iskremorova, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Gin Taras, as submitted the name consists of two given names and no bynames. In some languages this formation would be interpreted as a given name and an unmarked patronymic, but unmarked patronymics are unattested in Russian. The documentation for Gin shows an example of this element used as a descriptive byname, although other names using Gin- as a protheme with the same meaning, 'young', are undisputably given names. Since Gin seems plausible as a given name, we have changed the second name to an appropriate patronymic form and registered the name as Gin Taras'ev syn. Wickenden, A Dictionary of Period Russian Names, s.n. Tarassi [sic], cites a Guba Tara'ev [sic] syn in the 15th C. [Gin Taras'ev syn, LoAR 12/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Nadezhda Volynskaia, the documentation shows the name of the town from which the locative was formed as Volyn'. We have changed the name to Nadezhda Volyn'skaia to match the documentation. [Nadezhda Volyn'skaia, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

The name means "ruler/mistress of Samarina." While Kira is a given name, it is also a word meaning "ruler/mistress." Its combination with a placename implies that the bearer is the ruler of that place. RfS VI.1 says:

Names containing titles, territorial claims, or allusions to rank are considered presumptuous. Titles like Earl and Duke generally may not be used as Society names, even if the title is the submitters legal name. Names documented to have been used in period may be used, even if they were derived from titles, provided there is no suggestion of territorial claim or explicit assertion of rank. For example, Regina the Laundress is acceptable but Regina of Germany is not.

[Kira Samarina, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-R]

Submitted as Tama Katerina Evstokh'eva, the name Tama is not formed according to documented Russian practice. Nebuly explains:

The addition of an -a will rarely create a feminized form in Slavic languages, and more often creates a masculine diminutive of a given name, e.g. Antip/Antipa, Dorosh/Dorosha (Dorofei), Kharko/Kharka (Khariton). For each pair of names, both forms are listed as masculine by Wickenden. I was able to pull all three of these example pairs from Wickenden in less than a minute by opening to random pages, which should show evidence that this pattern is common.

Adding an -a is only a general pattern of feminization in Slavic names in certain special cases where the root name is a standard old dithematic name, like Borislav, Borimir, Svetislav, Svetimir, etc. Of the three examples presented in the LoI, only one is of this type (Rostislav/Rostislava), and is legitimately a feminization. However, since the submission uses the proposed masculine root Tam, which is not a dithematic name in Russian, such examples do not apply toward justifying this submission. They represent a different specialized case.

We have, therefore, registered this name as Katerina Evstokh'eva. [Katerina Evstokh'eva, LoAR 10/2004, West-A]

No documentation was provided and none found of a Russian byname meaning "indifferent"; therefore this name cannot be registered under the lingua anglica allowance. Furthermore, by precedent, overly abstract English bynames of this sort are not registerable:

Niobe the Forgetful. [May 2002 LoAR Atlantia-R] "The byname the Forgetful has been registered a total of seven times, most recently in May 1994. Since that time, there have been several rulings regarding abstract descriptive bynames, including:
[returning the nickname the Arronious] Period nicknames tend to be straightforward and to use common words: Thynnewyt thin [of] wit, stupid, le Wis the wise, Badinteheved bad in the head, le Wilfulle, le Proude the proud, le Hardy the courageous, le Sour, le Cursede, le Deuyle the devil, Blaksoule black-soul. The learned erroneous simply doesn't belong in this company. Although the adjective in question is not a past participle, we do not consider this case to be significantly different from those of Adam the Unexpected (East, returned 2/96) and Deirdre the Distracted (Ansteorra, returned 4/94), whose bynames were returned partly for being too abstract. Similarly, erroneous is too far from the common tongue to be at all believable as a period byname. (Aurelius the Arronious of Bikeleswade, 10/96 p. 8)

The same argument applies to the byname the Indifferent. [Vlad the Indifferent, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-R]

The given name was documented from a book of Russian names, but it is, in fact, a German name. Metron Ariston notes "One of the most famous encyclopedists of the medieval period was Hraban Maur whose name usually appears in the Latinized form Hrabanus Maurus, abbot of Fulda and archbishop of Mainz. I strongly suspect that the listing in Moroshkin from which Goldschmidt draws refers to him since it is dated to 847 when he was elected archbishop of Mainz." Wickenden includes names of foreigners found in Russian contexts, so it is highly likely that this is a German name found in a Russian document. Therefore, this name mixes German and Russian in a single name, which is one step from period practice. [Hraban Peterov, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines a Russian given name with two English bynames. Combining English and Russian is one step from period practice. [Orion Storm Bruin, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines German and Russian; this is one step from period practice. [Leta von Golsar, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Submitted as Anastasiia Ivanova Petrshalov, Russian grammer requires that the second patronymic be feminized to match the gender of the given name. We have, therefore, changed the name to Anastasiia Ivanova Petroshalova. [Anastasiia Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Originally submitted as Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, the name was changed at kingdom to Svatava Ivanova Petreshalov. Because this is a feminine name, both patronymics need to be in the feminine form, as they are in the originally submitted form. We have, therefore, changed the name back to this form. [Svatava Ivanova Petreshalova, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name combines Russian and English, which is one step from period practice. [Boris Iron Oak, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Draka Bronov, Nebuly notes a problem with the grammar of the locative:

The LoI has misspelled the name of the town listed in Wickenden (p.432). The name of the town is Bran' (or Bron). The soft sign was left off in the LoI, and although it is not necessary for registration, it can affect the grammar when endings are added. In this submission, the locative should be spelled Bronev, since the town's name ends in a "soft" sound.

We have changed the name to Draka Bronev to correct the grammar. [Draka Bronev, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

A single example in an extensive regional history of period contact, limited to a single royal marriage with no lasting dynasty on the Russian end is not significant cultural contact. Significant cultural contact would require evidence ongoing and extensive contact in one or more of the following areas: direct trade, diplomacy, travel, colonization, or other cultural contact. RfS III.1 says "Languages should be used together only if there was substantial contact between the cultures that spoke those languages." Because substantial contact between French and Russian cultures is lacking, French/Russian names can no longer be registered. Any French/Russian names considered after December, 2004 will be returned. [CL 06/2004]

The submitted name, Sonja Ryzaja, was transcribed using the International Phonetic transcription system as described on p. ix of Wickenden, Dictionary of Period Russian Names. However, the submitter appears to have confused the transcription for the 8th character, {zv}--z-hachek, for that of the 9th character in the table, z. This transcription system gives Sonja Ry{zv}aja as the correct form of this name. We would change it to this form, but she will not accept any changes. Therefore, we are forced to return it. [Sonja Ryzaja, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

Although Tselomudrenni was documented as constructed from a Russian word meaning "the chaste," no evidence was submitted and none found suggesting this byname was either used in Russia or followed a pattern of Russian descriptive bynames. We would drop this element, but the submitter would not accept major changes. Therefore, this name must be returned. [Voron Gregor'ev Tselomudrenni, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-R]

SAINTS' NAMES

This name mixes an Italian saint's name with an English byname, such mixtures are one step beyond period practice. [Eliana Fraser, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the name Arian in use in Wales in period, or in use as a name in cultures that had significant contact with Wales. The submitter asserted that Arian was a variant of the saint's name Arianell, but the submitted documentation only showed Arian- as a protheme in Welsh names. Documentation was presented for the name Arian as an Alexandrian martyr, but no documentation was found showing that the cult of this martyr was known in Wales or in cultures with significant contact with Wales. We would have changed the name to Arianell to match the documentation, but this significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name. The submitter will not accept major changes. [Arian ferch Dafydd Mawr, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

The question was raised whether the name Aidan is reasonable as an English given name, since the Gaelic name Aodhán or Áedán fell out of popular use in Ireland before the 11th C. The saint in question appears as Aidanus in Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. As Bede was known and read in England throughout period, Aidanus is certainly registerable as a period name. As Aidan is the appropriate English vernacular form of the Latin Aidanus, this name is registerable as a literary name. [Aidan Ransford, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

The submitted documentation dates the given name to 652, but uses a post 1200 form for the patronymic. However, the documentation also notes that Séigíne is the name of two saints. Under the guidelines for registerability of saints' names (see the Cover Letter for the September 2001 LoAR for more details), the form Séigíne is registerable as an Old Irish (c700-c900) or a Middle Irish (c900-c1200) given name, bringing the end date for this form forward to 1200. [Séigíne inghean uí Dhraighneáin, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

This name was returned in August 2003; in the submission Mealla was described as a saint's name, but no documentation was provided and none found showing this. This submitted has provided citations from several sources, including The Catholic Encylopedia for saint's [sic] of this name. Therefore, the name, in some form, is registerable. The spelling Mealla is modern, but consistent with Early Modern Irish spellings. [Mealla Caimbeul, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name was originally submitted as Caoimhin MacAindriú but it was changed at kingdom to Cáemgen MacAndreas. The submitter request a name authentic to Irish language/culture. As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal.

As submitted, this name has several problems, none of which is fatal. First, the spelling Caoimhin is a modern spelling. Barring documentation for this spelling in period, it cannot be registered. Rowel notes the form Cáemgen referring to the 7th C saint. She also notes "I can find no use of it after the 7th C saint. Instead, I find forms like <Giolla Caoimhghin> (Four Masters, B, M1159.3) and <Maol Caoimhghin> (Four Masters, B, M1086.1). Note that the Four Masters use predominently Early Modern Gaelic (c1200-c1700) spellings." This is not unusual for the name of an important saint; in Irish culture, names of saint's were often considered too holy to use and instead devotional forms meaning "servent [sic] of saint's name" were used. However, saint's names were generally part of the Irish naming pool, the bare saint's name, Cáemgen or Caoimhghin are also registerable. [Caoimhghin MacAindriú, LoAR 07/2004, Drachenwald-A]

The first Pope Anacletus was a saint, while the 2nd Anacletus was an anti-pope in the 12th C recognized in Scotland. Furthmore, the name is a Latin name making it a possibility as a devotional name for a monk or priest. However, as no examples have been found of the use of this name by Scots in the 13th C, it is not an authentic Scottish given name. [Anacletus McTerlach, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Dimitri Biagi, the documentation submitted for the given name explicitly describes this as a modern Italian form. Loosely translated, de Felice says this about the name: "the form Dimitri is the Slavic form of Demetrio, it represents a name of foreign residents and is, above all, a recent name of fashion, exotic or of literary derivation particularly from Russian literature." Barring evidence of significant contact between Russia and Italy in period or evidence of the use of this form in period in Italy, the form Dimitri is not registerable as part of an Italian name. The spelling Demetrio is a saint's name found in Italy in period. Although there is no evidence that this particular saint's name entered the Italian naming pool, it is registerable as part of an Italian name. We have, therefore, changed this name to Demetrio Biagi. [Demetrio Biagi, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

SCOTS

No documentation was provided and none found for multiple inherited surnames in Scots in period. Barring such documentation, double inherited surnames in Scots are not registerable. Names of the form "given+surname+of locative" are common in the 16th C. As Leslie is originally a locative byname, we would change this name to Robert MacAlister of Leslie. However, the submitter will not accept major changes such as reordering the name phrases. We note that Robert Leslie and Robert MacAlister are both registerable forms of this name. [Robert Leslie MacAlister, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-R]

Submitted as Robert Kyle MacEoin, the submitter requested authenticity for Scottish language/culture. As submitted, the name has two problems. First, the use of double inherited surnames is unattested in Scots naming practice. However, names of the form "given+surname+of locative" are common in Scotland in the 16th C. Switching the order of the bynames and making Kyle a true locative solves this problem. [Robert M'Ean of Kyle, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Listed on the LoI as Malcolm MacCullum de Moffat, the form and documentation both show MacCallum. We have changed the patronymic back to the originally submitted form. As submitted, the name appears to have two inherited surnames. No documentation was provided and none found for this practice in period Scotland. However, names of the form "given+byname+of locative" are common in 16th C Scotland. We have changed the name to Malcolm MacCallum of Moffat in order to register it. [Malcolm MacCallum of Moffat, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

This name combines Scots and Gaelic in a single name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Galen MacColmáin, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

Ian is an SCA compatible Scots form of this name. Use of an SCA-compatible name is one step beyond period practice. [Ian Morteyne, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses a double-given name in a Scots name; double-given names are unattested in Scots or Scottish Gaelic. [Stuart Martin MacDonald, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

This name uses a double given name with a Scots rendering of a Gaelic name. This is one step beyond period practice. [George Frank McKenzie, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

As documented, this name combined a Spanish given name with a Scots byname. However, no documentation was included and none provided by the College for substantial contact between Scotland and Spain in period. [Mara Sutherland, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

No documentation was provided and none found for the construction [Scots given name]+ [Anglicized Gaelic patronymic] + [English descriptive byname]. The 02/02 precedent concerning Brigitte MacFarlane Red addresses this issue:

Black (s.n. Reid) dates Gilbert 'le Rede' to 1296. This takes English out of the lingual mix. However, the bigger problem is placing a the or le style of literal descriptive byname after a Mac- style of surname. Very few types of bynames appear after a Mac- style surname in Scots. Most of these are locatives (i.e. of Edinburgh). All other bynames that have been found after a Mac- byname modify the object of the Mac- byname, and so form a compound byname. For example, Black (p. 475 s.n. MacConachie) dates William M'Ane Makconquhye to 1543. This name means 'William son of John [who was the] son of Duncan'. So William has one patronymic byname that contains multiple generations: M'Ane Makconquhye is his patronymic byname, and it is a single name phrase. In the case of this submission, the Red refers to MacFarlane, not to Brigitte. MacFarlane is a Scots rendering of a Gaelic byname. The cited le Rede is a Scots or English rendering of an English byname. While both elements are Scots, no evidence was presented that they can be combined in a compound patronymic byname MacFarlane the Red. Since Black (s.n. Reid) states that "Reid is also used as an Englishing of Gaelic Ruadh", and Ruadh (meaning 'red') is a logical descriptive to follow Mac Pharlain in Gaelic, MacFarlane Reid is a logical Scots form of this combination. As Black shows Red and Reid to be variants of each other, MacFarlane Red is also a plausible Scots form. As the submitter allows minor changes, we have dropped the in order to register this name.

In this case, the Bold is not a form of a Gaelic descriptive. We would have reordered the name parts to Malcolm the Bold McGregor, giving the form [Scots given name] + [English descriptive byname] + [Anglicized Gaelic patronymic], which is a valid construction for a Scots name. However, the submitter will not accept changes. [Malcolm McGregor the Bold, LoAR 09/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Therefore, we will give the submitter the benefit of the doubt and allow Cornish/Scots mixtures. Such mixtures are, however, one step from period practice. [Wencenedl of Rokesburg, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

This name mixes an English or Scots name with an Italian name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Arabella Niccola Giovanni, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

This name combines Scots and Scottish Gaelic orthographies in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Muriel ingen Gille Crist, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Scots orthographies; this is one step from period practice. [Mairghread of Herth, LoAR 08/2004, Drachenwald-A]

This name mixes Scots and Gaelic, which is one step from period practice. [Fearghus Cochrane, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Scots in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Con O'Quyrke, LoAR 07/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name consists of either two given names and a marked patronymic; or of a given name, an unmarked patronymic and a marked patronymic. No documentation was submitted and none found for either practice in period Scotland. We would drop the name Tosh, making the name just a given name and a marked patronymic, but the submitter will not accept major changes. [Samuel Tosh McTier, LoAR 07/2004, Ealdormere-R]

The first Pope Anacletus was a saint, while the 2nd Anacletus was an anti-pope in the 12th C recognized in Scotland. Furthmore, the name is a Latin name making it a possibility as a devotional name for a monk or priest. However, as no examples have been found of the use of this name by Scots in the 13th C, it is not an authentic Scottish given name.

As listed on the LoI, there is a temporal gap of more than 300 years between the 12th C date of the given name and the modern header form of the byname. Black, Surnames of Scotland, dates McTerlach to 1436. Because this is closer in date to the given name and closer in appearance to the name originally submitted, we have changed this name to Anacletus McTerlach. [Anacletus McTerlach, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Coinneach Micha Moray, the element Micha has several problems. First, no documentation was submitted and none found that Micha is found in period. The website from which this name was documented is an index to a book, Jewish Surnames from Prague (15th - 18th Centuries) by Alexander Beider. While the book gives dates, the index does not; so, we don't know whether this name was found in the 15th C or in the 18th. Furthermore, and more important, no documentation was submitted and none found for substantial contact between Bohemia and Scotland in period. Barring such documentation, combining Bohemian with either Scots or Gaelic in the same name is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered this name as Coinneach Moray. In that form, the name is still one step from period practice, but it is registerable. [Coinneach Moray, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name combines a Welsh given name with a Scots surname, which is one step from period practice. [Wynne MacNair, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

SPANISH

This name mixes English and Spanish, which is one step from period practice. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it mixes Arabic and Spanish in the same name, which is one step from period practice. While we know that combinations of names from the two naming pools occurred, the names were rendered in forms appropriate for one or the other language. Second, there is a more than 300 year gap between the 10th C date for Sadaqat or Sadaqah and the 15th C date for Salas. [Sadaqat Salas, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

As documented, this name combined a Spanish given name with a Scots byname. However, no documentation was included and none provided by the College for substantial contact between Scotland and Spain in period. [Mara Sutherland, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

Mixing Italian and Spanish in a name is one step from period practice. [Alessandra de Burgos, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

The submitter requested authenticity for Spanish language/culture. Although the given name Mercedes is a modern Spanish name, the earliest example we have for its use is in 1690. It is only because the given name is already registered to her that we can register it here. [Mercedes de Calafia, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

Submitted as Joselito Leofric, this name has several problems. No documentation was provided and none found that Joselito was used in period or that the period Spanish diminutives were formed by adding -lito. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Joselito Leofric, this name has several problems...Furthermore, the name combines a Spanish given name with an Anglo-Saxon byname. No documentation was provided and none found for substantial contact between these two cultures. Barring such documentation, such combinations cannot be registered. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Abd al-Rahman al-Javier, the submitter requested authenticity for Moorish Spain. The byname al-Javier combines Arabic and Spanish in a single name phrase in violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency...Therefore, we have changed the locative to a fully Spanish form, giving Abd al-Rahman de Javier. [Abd al-Rahman de Javier, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Arabic and Spanish in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Abd al-Rahman de Javier, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Spanish and Arabic, which is one step from period practice. [Damiana al-Andalusiyya, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

Submitted as Carlos el Lobo, no documentation was submitted nor any found for forming Spanish animal bynames with an article. We have registered this name as Carlos_Lobo to match period examples. [Carlos Lobo, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

This name combines an Italian given name with an otherwise Spanish name; this is one step from period practice. [Dante Madraso de Castilla, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

STEP FROM PERIOD PRACTICE (SFPP)

This entry mixes Old or Middle Irish Gaelic with Early Modern Irish Gaelic; this is one step beyond period practice. [Ciarán mac Gaoithín, LoAR 01/2005, Æthelmearc-A]

As submitted, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines Turkish and Arabic in the same name, this was declared a step from period practice in June 2001. Second, there is a more than 300 year gap between the early 16th C date of the given name and the, at latest, 1200 date for the byname. [Ay{s,}e al-Zahra', LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

As documented, this name mixes English and Italian, which is one step from period practice. However, Hund notes that de Felice, Dizionario dei nomi italiani cites Elias as a Latinized form of the Italian Elia. Therefore, this name mixes a Latinized Italian and vernacular Italian mix. [Elias Loredan, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Róisi MacCracken, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

The given name Emma is documented as a French name. Mixing French and German in a single name is a step from period practice. [Emma Rudolfstochter, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

This name combines English and Old Norse in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Dalla Jade, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

This name mixes Old English and Old Norse; this is one step from period practice. [Wulfgar gerpir, LoAR 01/2005, Caid-A]

This name combines French and Italian, this is one step beyond period practice. [Marion Leoncina da Susa, LoAR 01/2005, Meridies-A]

...this name mixes Old Norse and English, which is one step from period practice. [Vallaulfr Rurikson, LoAR 12/2004, Atenveldt-A]

As registered, the name contains two Christian given names. The use of two Christian names in a Russian name is a one step from period practice:

The submitter requested authenticity for 14th-15th C Russia and allowed any changes. Both Anton and Ivan are Christian names. Having two Christian names in a Russian name was ruled a weirdness in the June 1997 LoAR. An authentic name for this time period would have only a single Christian name. [Anton Ivan Stanislavich, 02/02, A-Æthelmearc]

If the submitter is interested in an authentic Russian name, we suggest Aleksei Rusiian Nikolaev. Rusiian is a name of Slavic origin, and we have examples of double given names in Russian combining a Christian given name and a Russian or Slavic given name. [Aleksei Nikolai Rusianov, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in a single name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Caitríona of Lindisfarne, LoAR 12/2004, Caid-A]

This name combines Scots and Gaelic in a single name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Galen MacColmáin, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name combines German and English in the same name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Hette Arnold, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses the SCA compatible byname the Traveler. [Ælfgar the Traveler, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

This name is two steps from period practice...Second, there is a more than 300 year time gap between the 10th C date for the given name, and the 1457 date for the first citation of the word traveller in English. [Ælfgar the Traveler, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

As submitted, the name mixes Old Norse and Swedish; this is one step from period practice. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name mixes English and Spanish, which is one step from period practice. [Sterling de la Rosa, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

This name combines an Old English name with an Old Norse name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Wulfric bláskegg, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

Ian is an SCA compatible Scots form of this name. Use of an SCA-compatible name is one step beyond period practice. [Ian Morteyne, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

The name mixes Irish and English; this is one step beyond period practice. [Béoán Freborn, LoAR 12/2004, Lochac-A]

This name mixes the Gaelic Sisuile with the English Butler; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Sisuile Butler, LoAR 12/2004, Northshield-A]

As registered, the name mixes Gaelic and English, which is one step from period practice. [Óengus Minogue, LoAR 12/2004, Outlands-A]

This name mixes Dutch and English, which is one step beyond period practice. [Delia Weaver, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

Second, it combines Swedish and English in the same name; this was declared one step from period practice in July 2002. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

This name mixes an Italian saint's name with an English byname, such mixtures are one step beyond period practice. [Eliana Fraser, LoAR 12/2004, West-A]

This name mixes Dutch and English; this is one step from period practice. [Dirk Bodkin the Sharp, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines an English given name with an Anglicized Irish patronymic; this is one step from period practice. [Gareth McGilchrist, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines Arabic and Portuguese in the same name, which is one step from period practice. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

There was some question whether Argyll was a unique surname of the Campbells based on the statement from Black, "Sir Duncan Campbell...created Lord Campbell in 1445, was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll..." However, the full quote makes it clear that Argyll is adopted as a locative, "Sir Duncan Cambell or Cambelle of Lochow,...was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll in addition to, and sometimes in place of Lochow." There is a well attested pattern of inherited surnames in Scotland that are formed from placenames; although Argyll is not documented as a surname, it is documented as a placename. [Angus Argyll of Clyde, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

This name mixes Welsh and French in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Maura Cethin, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

This name mixes an Irish given name with an English surname; this is one step beyond period practice. [Tadhg Fairbairn, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

The name combines Gaelic and English, which is one step from period practice. [Deran Wylde, LoAR 11/2004, Ansteorra-A]

There is a more than 300 year gap between the documented date of the given name, Auriana, in 678 and the late 11th C date for the byname. This is one step from period practice. [Auriana Witley, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses a double-given name in a Scots name; double-given names are unattested in Scots or Scottish Gaelic. Second, it uses the submitter's legal given name Stuart; this name is unattested as a given name in period. Names which were not used in period, but are registerable via the Legal Name Allowance, were ruled to be a a step beyond period practice (wierdness) in January 1996:

[W]e see no reason to distinguish between "SCA-compatible" names and other non-period names permitted under the provisions of RfS II.4 (Legal Names): both are allowed as concessions to modern sensibilities despite their inauthentic nature.

Beginning with the 5/96 meeting, therefore, use of two individually permissible non-period elements in a single name will be considered two weirdnesses and will be grounds for return. Such elements include non-period names allowed under the Legal Name Allowance as well as those names, apparently not used by human beings in period, that have been declared "SCA-compatible"... (Talan Gwynek, Cover Letter to the January 1996 LoAR, pp. 3-4)

[Stuart Martin MacDonald, LoAR 11/2004, East-R]

This name combines an Old English given name with a Middle English byname; this is one step from period practice. Several commenters stated that there should also be a step for temporal disparity. However, Cerdic is dated to 981 in Searle, and Wlfraven to 1273 in Bardsley; this is under, although just under, 300 years. [Cerdic Wlfraven, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Tara of Dragonwood, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it uses the submitter's legal given name, Tara, which is a name not used as a given name in period. Such names were ruled one step beyond period practice in January, 1996. Second, it uses a name constructed as Dragon+[topographic]. Precedent states about such names

[Dragonhurst] No evidence was supplied that Dragon- was a period element in placenames. Drakehurst would be significantly more authentic. Nevertheless, a cursory search found over 30 SCA names with Dragon-"X" as locatives. Therefore Dragonhurst is SCA compatible. [Anne of Dragonhurst, 02/00, A-Middle]

[Tara of Dragonswood, LoAR 12/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name uses a double given name with a Scots rendering of a Gaelic name. This is one step beyond period practice. [George Frank McKenzie, LoAR 10/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Connor mac Lommán, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it combines a post-1200 Anglicized given name with a Middle Gaelic byname; as with Old and Middle (pre-1200) and Early Modern Gaelic (post 1200), this is also one step from period practice. [Connor mac Lomáin, LoAR 10/2004, Meridies-A]

This name combines German and French forms in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Öhrens de Gant, LoAR 10/2004, Caid-A]

There is a more than 300 year gap between the date for Draco, 1060, and le Blanc, 1421. This is one step from period practice. [Draco le Blanc, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

We note that this name uses the modern Gaelic Iain, an SCA-compatible name, which is one step from period practice. [Iain MacBhaltair, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

The form of the locative de Warewic dates to 1196; combining it with the 1625 form of Underell is one step from period practice. [Mathew Underell de Warewic, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it mixes Arabic and Spanish in the same name, which is one step from period practice. While we know that combinations of names from the two naming pools occurred, the names were rendered in forms appropriate for one or the other language. Second, there is a more than 300 year gap between the 10th C date for Sadaqat or Sadaqah and the 15th C date for Salas. [Sadaqat Salas, LoAR 10/2004, East-R]

This name combines Greek and Arabic; such combinations are one step beyond period practice. [Helene al-Zarqa', LoAR 10/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines Arabic and Italian in a single name. To register names combining forms from two cultures, documentation of substantial contact between two cultures must be demonstrated. Siren provides such documentation:

Arabs ruled over Sicily from the 9th to the 11th century. Goitein, p. 215 quotes a writer from 11th century Egypt who writes that in one year 10 ships came from Sicily, each carrying some 500 passengers; in what seems a normal year, some 5000 travellers went back and forth. "Sicily" here may include some points between, such as Tunisia, but the numbers are still large.
Arabs and Italians were both deeply involved in the medieval Mediterranean trade. A Muslim traveller, Ibn Jubayr, in 1184 commented on the many Muslims serving in the court at Palermo; this is over 60 years after Roger was crowned king of Sicily in 1130. (Holmes, p. 200). The discussion of Frederick II (1194-1250) says "He made the cosmopolitan culture of Sicily his own, and his court was rich in scholars of Islam, astrologers, exotic animals... (p. 223). Goitein, S.D., A Mediterrranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol 1: Economic Foundations. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1967. Holmes, George (ed.), The Oxford History of Medieval Europe. New York: Oxford. 1988.

Therefore, names combining Arabic and Italian are one step from period practice, but registerable. We note that names combining Arabic and Italian forms in a single name are highly unlikely. The name would have an Italian version used in an Italian context and an Arabic version used in an Arabic context. [Amat al-Shakoor di Riccardo, LoAR 10/2004, East-A]

This name mixes Old English and Welsh; this is one step from period practice. [Aluara verch Morgan ap Rhys, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

This name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines English and Gaelic in the same name. Second, it uses a Gaelic name as part of a double-given name, a practice that is unattested in Gaelic cultures in period. [Elizabeth Ciarnait Ravenscroft, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-R]

Therefore, we will give the submitter the benefit of the doubt and allow Cornish/Scots mixtures. Such mixtures are, however, one step from period practice. [Wencenedl of Rokesburg, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Mixing Italian and Spanish in a name is one step from period practice. [Alessandra de Burgos, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

This name mixes a Gaelic given name with an Anglicized Gaelic patronymic; this is one step from period practice. [Nechtan MacIver, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

As submitted, the name combines English and Gaelic in the same name, which is one step beyond period practice. [Angus MacDhomhnuill na Skey, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-R]

This name combines a German given name with an English byname; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Christoph of Willaston, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name combines an Italian given name with a German byname; this is one step from period practice. [Damiano Faust, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

There is a 500 year gap between the documentation for the given name and for the byname, which is one step from period practice. [Jose Leodefrediz, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name mixes a Gaelic given name with an English patronymic, which is one step from period practice. [Rian Fitzpatryk, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

This name mixes an English or Scots name with an Italian name; this is one step beyond period practice. [Arabella Niccola Giovanni, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

This name mixes a French given name with an Italian byname, which is one step beyond period practice. [Dalia d'Auria, LoAR 09/2004, Outlands-A]

This name mixes Arabic and Spanish in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Abd al-Rahman de Javier, LoAR 09/2004, West-A]

This name combines Gaelic and English in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Caol the Lucky, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name combines Scots and Scottish Gaelic orthographies in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Muriel ingen Gille Crist, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

The name combines a Welsh name with an Anglicized Gaelic byname, which is one step from period practice. [Tegwaret MacAuley, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Therefore, this name mixes German and Russian in a single name, which is one step from period practice. [Hraban Peterov, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines an English spelling for the given name with a German byname, which is one step from period practice. [Mihil von Brandenburg, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines a Russian given name with two English bynames. Combining English and Russian is one step from period practice. [Orion Storm Bruin, LoAR 08/2004, Atenveldt-A]

The given name is documented to the 6th or 7th C, while the byname is 14th C. This temporal gap of approximately 700 years is one step from period practice. [Constantina Tagarina, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

The mixture of English and German is registerable but one step from period practice. [Danyel Volker, LoAR 08/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name mixes Gaelic and Scots orthographies; this is one step from period practice. [Mairghread of Herth, LoAR 08/2004, Drachenwald-A]

This name combines German and Russian; this is one step from period practice. [Leta von Golsar, LoAR 08/2004, Lochac-A]

Originally submitted as Anacletus MacTearlaich, the name was changed in kingdom to Anacletus MacKerley to avoid a non-registerable mixture of Italian and Gaelic and because MacTearlaich was a modern form of the patronymic...As listed on the LoI, there is a temporal gap of more than 300 years between the 12th C date of the given name and the modern header form of the byname. Black, Surnames of Scotland, dates McTerlach to 1436. Because this is closer in date to the given name and closer in appearance to the name originally submitted, we have changed this name to Anacletus McTerlach. [Anacletus McTerlach, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

This name mixes Spanish and Arabic, which is one step from period practice. [Damiana al-Andalusiyya, LoAR 08/2004, Outlands-A]

This combines a Latinized Dutch and German byname in a single name, but such combinations are not considered a step from period practice.[Wilhelma von Ravensburg, LoAR 07/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines English and Gaelic in the same name; this is one step from period practice. [Katin inghean Neachtain, LoAR 07/2004, An Tir-A]

This name combines Old Irish Gaelic with Early Modern Irish Gaelic, which is one step from period practice. [Báethán mac Dhuibh, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name mixes Scots and Gaelic, which is one step from period practice. [Fearghus Cochrane, LoAR 07/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Elizabet Alfinnsdottir von Rhine, this name has several problems. First, the byname combines the German von with the English spelling Rhine in violation of RfS III.1.a. A fully German form would be am Reine, dated to 1300 in Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. However, even with the locative in the fully German form, this name is two steps from period practice. The given name is Swedish and the byname is old Norse; this was ruled a step from period practice in 8/2002. Mixing German and Old Norse was ruled a step from period practice in 3/2004. Therefore, we have dropped the locative in order to register this name, leaving Elizabet Alfinnsdottir. [Elizabet Alfinnsdottir, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Áedán_Briscoe, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it mixes Gaelic and English in the same name. Second, there is a 600 year gap between the date of the given name and that of the byname. [Áedán de Brisco, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

This name combines Russian and English, which is one step from period practice. [Boris Iron Oak, LoAR 07/2004, Caid-A]

Submitted as Aislinn de Tanet, the name as submitted is two steps from period practice. First, the given name, Aislinn is SCA-compatible. Second, it mixes Gaelic and English in the same name. We have changed the given name to Ascelina, a name similar in sound and appearance. Ascelina is found in Reaney and Wilson, s.n. Aslin dated to 1214. [Ascelina de Tanet, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

This name mixes Middle Irish Gaelic given name with an Early Modern Irish byname; such combinations are one step from period practice. [Cano mag Fhionnghail, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

This name combines an Italian given name with an otherwise Spanish name; this is one step from period practice. [Dante Madraso de Castilla, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Listed on the LoI as Ian O'Muirgheasa of Strikkenwoode, the forms and documentation showed Ian ÓMuirgheasa of Strikkenwoode. These comments are based on the spelling shown on the forms. As submitted, this name is two steps from period practice. First, Ian is an SCA-compatible name; all available evidence is that it is a post-period spelling. Second, this name combines Gaelic and English, which is the second step. [Ioan Ó Muirgheasa of Strikkenwoode, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

There is a more than 300 year gap between the 1637 date for Kathren and the 1310 date for the locative byname Invirnisse. This is one step from period practice. [Kathren Ross of Invirnisse, LoAR 07/2004, Middle-A]

Submitted as Coinneach Micha Moray, the element Micha has several problems. First, no documentation was submitted and none found that Micha is found in period. The website from which this name was documented is an index to a book, Jewish Surnames from Prague (15th - 18th Centuries) by Alexander Beider. While the book gives dates, the index does not; so, we don't know whether this name was found in the 15th C or in the 18th. Furthermore, and more important, no documentation was submitted and none found for substantial contact between Bohemia and Scotland in period. Barring such documentation, combining Bohemian with either Scots or Gaelic in the same name is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered this name as Coinneach Moray. In that form, the name is still one step from period practice, but it is registerable. [Coinneach Moray, LoAR 07/2004, Trimaris-A]

We note that this name mixes English and Italian in a single name, which is one step from period practice. [Brenna Garrett, LoAR 06/2004, Ansteorra-A]

This name uses two given names with an Anglicized Irish byname; this is one step beyond period practice. [Mary Kate O'Malley, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Tearlach mac Conchobair, the name uses the modern Gaelic given name. "Tearlach is a Modern Gaelic (c. 1700 to present) form of this name. Lacking evidence that it was used in Gaelic in period, it is not registerable." [Tearlach McIntosh, 05/2003 LoAR, R-Atenveldt]." The name also combines a modern Irish Gaelic given name with a Middle Irish Gaelic patronymic; even if the given name were registerable, a combination of a modern Irish name and a Middle Irish name is not registerable due to the temporal disparity between the parts. The Middle Irish Gaelic form Tairdelbach is dated to 1086 in Mari Elspeth nic Bryan's "Dated Names Found in Ó Corráin and Maguire's Irish Names." Therefore, we have changed this name to Tairdelbach mac Conchobair, a fully Middle Irish Gaelic form. [Tairdelbach mac Conchobair, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

This name combines Old English and Middle English in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Ceolflæd Pyper, LoAR 06/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

This name combines a Welsh given name with a Scots surname, which is one step from period practice. [Wynne MacNair, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Ian Cinnsealach, this name is two steps from period practice: it uses an SCA compatible name, and combines an Anglicized given name with a Gaelic byname. Since the submitter will accept major changes, we have changed the name to Iain Cinnsealach, Iain, itself an SCA compatible name, is a Gaelic form of Ian. This is the smallest possible change which will make the name registerable. [Iain Cinnsealach, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Welsh and Anglicized Gaelic combinations are registerable although a step from period practice...[Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

SURNAMES

No documentation was provided and none found for multiple inherited surnames in Scots in period. Barring such documentation, double inherited surnames in Scots are not registerable. Names of the form "given+surname+of locative" are common in the 16th C. As Leslie is originally a locative byname, we would change this name to Robert MacAlister of Leslie. However, the submitter will not accept major changes such as reordering the name phrases. We note that Robert Leslie and Robert MacAlister are both registerable forms of this name. [Robert Leslie MacAlister, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-R]

In England, Winter is a patronymic surname. When the word Winter is found in a placename, it is either as a possessive element (place belonging to a man named Winter) or a descriptive element (place used in the winter). [Roland Winter, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

Listed on the LoI as Malcolm MacCullum de Moffat, the form and documentation both show MacCallum. We have changed the patronymic back to the originally submitted form. As submitted, the name appears to have two inherited surnames. No documentation was provided and none found for this practice in period Scotland. However, names of the form "given+byname+of locative" are common in 16th C Scotland. We have changed the name to Malcolm MacCallum of Moffat in order to register it. [Malcolm MacCallum of Moffat, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-A]

There was some question whether Argyll was a unique surname of the Campbells based on the statement from Black, "Sir Duncan Campbell...created Lord Campbell in 1445, was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll..." However, the full quote makes it clear that Argyll is adopted as a locative, "Sir Duncan Cambell or Cambelle of Lochow,...was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll in addition to, and sometimes in place of Lochow." There is a well attested pattern of inherited surnames in Scotland that are formed from placenames; although Argyll is not documented as a surname, it is documented as a placename. [Angus Argyll of Clyde, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

There was some discussion about whether double surnames were registerable in English. The practice is rare but found on occasion. Laurel wrote in February 2002:

There hasn't yet been much research done regarding double surnames in 16th C England. But from the evidence that has been found, we can say that in cases where both names were inherited, the two surnames indicate the surnames of the child's parents. In fact, Withycombe (p. xliii) dates Robert Browne Lilly, to 1593, noting that his father was John Lilly and his mother's maiden name was Browne. In a number of the instances of double surnames in the Dymock parish registers, this construction was an indication of illegitimacy. But considering the small amount of data we have at this time, it would be premature to presume that this is always the case. Indeed, the notation in Withycombe of Browne being "his mother's maiden name" would indicate that some of the time both parent's surnames were given to children born to married parents. [Benedict Saint-Jean Eldridge, LoAR 02/2004, A-Atenveldt]
Therefore, this name should be registerable as submitted. [Creature Twyne Dragon, LoAR 10/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Alida de Conti, the submitted documentation showed the form de' Conti. This is a scribal abbreviation for dei; we have changed her name to Alida dei Conti to match the submitted documentation. [Alida dei Conti, LoAR 09/2004, East-A]

SWEDISH

Submitted as Amleth Moor, the name combined Danish and English in a single name phrase in violation of RfS 3.1.a Linguistic Consistency. In addition, while there is evidence of the use of Old Norse names and words in English placenames, no documentation was submitted and none found for the use of medieval Danish in English placenames. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

In addition, while there is evidence of the use of Old Norse names and words in English placenames, no documentation was submitted and none found for the use of medieval Danish in English placenames. There is a similar sounding element found in English placenames: Mills, A Dictionary of British [sic] Place-Names s.n. Ambleston has Amleston in 1230. Amlesmore is a similar sounding name to the one submitted. [Amlesmore, Shire of, LoAR 12/2004, Calontir-A]

As submitted, the name mixes Old Norse and Swedish; this is one step from period practice. [Erlan skáld í Norðrlandi, LoAR 12/2004, East-A]

As submitted this name has several problems. First, it uses two Swedish given names. Double given names are unattested in Swedish naming practice. Barring documentation for multiple given names in Swedish, names using multiple Swedish given names are not registerable. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Second, it combines Swedish and English in the same name; this was declared one step from period practice in July 2002. [Sunniva Ottilia Stagg of Stowe on the Olde, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Submitted as Aelina inn ákafr, the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse. Aelina is a proposed variant of the Swedish name Ælina; however, there is no evidence that Æ and Ae are interchangable spellings in Swedish. [Eilina in ákafa, LoAR 11/2004, Atenveldt-A]

Submitted as Ragnarr Ulfsaxi, the submitter requested authenticity for 8th-10th C Anglo-Danish or Danish. The second name has several problems. The submitter formed this name by combining the protheme ulf-, found in Old Norse given names, with the name Saxi. However, no documentation was provided and none found that combining Ulf- with a random Norse given name is a valid pattern for forming a Norse name. [Ragnarr Ulfsson sax, LoAR 09/2004, Calontir-A]

Submitted as Elizabet Alfinnsdottir von Rhine, this name has several problems. First, the byname combines the German von with the English spelling Rhine in violation of RfS III.1.a. A fully German form would be am Reine, dated to 1300 in Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. However, even with the locative in the fully German form, this name is two steps from period practice. The given name is Swedish and the byname is old Norse; this was ruled a step from period practice in 8/2002. Mixing German and Old Norse was ruled a step from period practice in 3/2004. Therefore, we have dropped the locative in order to register this name, leaving Elizabet Alfinnsdottir. [Elizabet Alfinnsdottir, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-A]

TRANSCRIPTIONS & TRANSLITERATIONS

While not cause for return, there are grammatical, spelling, and transcription problems with the name. First, the spelling of the byname in the documentation is Seiðkona, not Sieðkona. Second, in Old Norse, bynames using in or inn are always weak adjectival forms, but Sieðkona [sic] is a noun meaning sorcoress or witch. Finally, by precedent, descriptive bynames in Old Norse are always transcribed in all lowercase. [Ragnhildr in Sieðkona, LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Submitted as Mellilah al-Zarqah, the documentation for the byname shows al-Zarqa'. As ah and a' are translterations of different characters/sounds, we have changed the name to Mellilah al-Zarqa' to match the documentation. [Mellilah al-Zarqa', LoAR 01/2005, Middle-A]

i

Originally submitted as Eliyahu ben Ezra, the name was changed in Kingdom to Elijah ben Ezra to match the available documentation. However, Eliyahu is a standard transliteration of this Hebrew name. Therefore, we have changed the name back to the originally submitted form. [Eliyahu ben Ezra, LoAR 01/2005, Outlands-A]

In addition, the spelling of the given name, Tryn appears to be a modern Anglicized transcription. The form Triun, cited in the submitted documentation, is a much more accurate representation. If this name is resubmitted, we suggest that form of the given name. [Tryn Völundsson, LoAR 12/2004, East-R]

Submitted as Hakim al-Dar el-Beïda, the submitter indicated he was most interested in a name meaning "Hakim from Casa Blanca." As submitted, the byname has several problems...Second, the name uses two different transcription systems; al and el represent the same word. [Hakim de Casa Branca, LoAR 11/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

[El{z.}bieta Piekarska] Submitted as El{zo}bieta Piekarska, the LoI notes that {zo} is Da'ud notation for a z with a ring above the letter. This is a misinterpretation of the z-kropka character, which is a z with a dot over it (kropka being the Polish word for "dot"). The z-kropka is the last letter in the Polish alphabet and is pronounced like the "zh" sound in "pleasure." There is no officially defined notation for the z-kropka, so we are going to define one. The practice of the Da'ud notation and of the extensions to it made by the Laurel office is to make the additional notation mark as similar to the accent or modification to the base Roman letter as possible. Therefore, we are proclaiming {z.} is the Dau'd style notation that the Laurel office will use for the z-kropka character. [Jan Starszy, LoAR 11/2004, East-A]

Several commentors cited the precedent of February 2002 forbidding the element "no" on written Japanese names. This precedent has been partially overturned:

Given that no is included in furigana glosses in classical texts, though not in the original texts (and so it is not appropriate for those submitters desiring authenticity), nocan be viewed as a modern transliteration standard. As such, it is registerable, so long as it is not used in a construction that could be viewed as presumptous. [Fujiwara no Aoi, 05/02, A-East]

[Kashiwadebe no Hikojirõ Kih&otild;e, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-R]

Submitted as Kj{o,}tvi Thorgrimsson, the submitter requested authenticity for 9th-11th C Old Norse. Old Norse names are registerable either using all accents and other diacritical marks or none. In addition, an authentic Old Norse transcription would use a Þ instead of the modern Th. We have changed the name to Kj{o,}tví Þorgrimsson to reflect this. [Kj{o,}tví Þorgrimsson, LoAR 09/2004, Æthelmearc-A]

Submitted as Björn inn svarti, the submitter requested authenticity for Old Norse. Using the o-umlaut (ö) instead of the o-ogonek ({o,}) is a later convention that really only gained popularity in modern times because of the limitations of standard typefonts. We have changed the given name to Bj{o,}rn to follow the normal transcription system. [Bj{o,}rn inn svarti, LoAR 09/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Sadb ingen S.uibne, the s. is intended to represent a punctum delens (a letter in Gaelic with a dot over it). This indicates that the letter is lenited. In the standard transcription of such letters in the Roman alphabet, lenition is shown by placing an 'h' after the letter that is lenited. We have changed the name to Sadb ingen Shuibhne to make the transcription system consistent for the Roman alphabet. The submitter is welcome to use the form Suibne with the punctum delens over the S when writing her name, if she wishes. [Sadb ingen Shuibne, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

Submitted as Sölvarr Brynjólfsson, in this case the transliteration ö is a modern convention for encoding o-ogonek; the typical SCA transcription for this character is {o,}. Because the submitter requested authenticity for 9th -12th Viking, and the o-ogenek is the character actually used to spell this name in the Landnamabok [sic], we have changed the spelling to S{o,}lvarr Brynjólfsson. [S{o,}lvarr Brynjólfsson, LoAR 09/2004, Northshield-A]

This name appeared on the LoI as Aryeh ben David ben Zecharia, but the form had Arya ben David ben Zecharia; the -a at the end of Arya was crossed out with -eh written in over it. In this case, internal kingdom commentary was included in the packet indicating this change was made at kingdom. The change is a valid transcription change which is explicitly acceptable to the submitter, so there is no need to change it back to the spelling on the form. [Aryeh ben David ben Zecharia, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Submitted as Gabriel andvaka Kjötvason, the special character in the patronymic is actually an o-ogonek, not an o-umlaut. We have corrected the transcription to Gabriel andvaka Kj{o,}tvason. [Gabriel andvaka Kj{o,}tvason, LoAR 08/2004, Calontir-A]

This submission uses diacritical marks when transliterating Chinese characters; this practice was declared unregisterable in June, 2003:

Submitted as Lán Ying, we have removed the accent from the byname. Pinyin and Wade-Giles are the two main systems for transliterating Chinese names using the Roman alphabet. Golden Pillar provided information regarding the accents and diacritical marks used in these transliteration systems:
First, Yin strongly recommends that Pelican and Laurel not register accent marks, or most other diacritical marks, with Chinese names. In Pinyin, and in many Wade-Giles, Romanizations, these marks are, in some sense, similar to the marks in deFelice, providing pronunciation information without being part of the actual characters in the name. With a few exceptions in Wade-Giles, the marks are one of two modern methods for conveying pronunciation tones, and the other method (numbers at the end of each syllable) is much more common. Further, both numbers and marks are most frequently omitted when Romanizing Chinese characters for Western readers from the general public. Please note that, if accent and diacritical marks are registered in Romanized Chinese names, then the much more common number-at-end-of-syllable should be likewise registerable. (By the way, if the number convention is registerable, this name would more frequently be Romanized as Lan2 Ying1 than as Lán Ying).
Given this information, we will omit diacritical marks and tonal indicators (numbers at the end of each syllable) when registering Chinese names. We have changed Lán to Lan in this name to remove the accent, which is used as a pronunciation indicator.

As the submitter will allow no changes, we cannot remove the diacritical marks from her name. [Xún Mèi L{iu}, LoAR 08/2004, Middle-R]

Submitted as Vörsa-Hvitr eldr...The character ö is a modern internet transcription for o-oganek [sic] (a character that looks like an o with a tail); the College of Arms typically transcribes this character as {o,}. Therefore, we have made this transcription change and fused the nickname and the name, giving V{o,}rsehvitr eldr. [V{o,}rsehvitr eldr, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Some commenters questioned whether Mephiboseth was a reasonable transliteration of the Hebrew name found in 2 Samuel. Argent Snail checked a Hebrew Bible and notes,

it turns out it is a reasonably close transliteration.... unless I have forgotten how to read Hebrew, it is fine as it is...that transliteration is a Sephardic one. There are two basic ways to pronouce Hebrew... Sephardic is how Arabic Jews and Israelies pronounce it, Ashkenazic is how European Jews do it...both forms are legit, as long as you are consistant. Luckily the rest of the name can go either way.

[Mephiboseth ben Yosef, LoAR 07/2004, Outlands-A]

The submitted name, Sonja Ryzaja, was transcribed using the International Phonetic transcription system as described on p. ix of Wickenden, Dictionary of Period Russian Names. However, the submitter appears to have confused the transcription for the 8th character, {zv}--z-hachek, for that of the 9th character in the table, z. This transcription system gives Sonja Ry{zv}aja as the correct form of this name. We would change it to this form, but she will not accept any changes. Therefore, we are forced to return it. [Sonja Ryzaja, LoAR 06/2004, East-A]

TURKISH

As submitted, this name is two steps from period practice. First, it combines Turkish and Arabic in the same name, this was declared a step from period practice in June 2001. [Ay{s,}e al-Zahra', LoAR 01/2005, An Tir-R]

Submitted as Dharr al-Nasir al-Mawsili, the submitter requested authenticity for 16th C Ottoman. We note that the Ottomans were Turks; this is an Arabic name, not a Turkish name. [Dharr ibn 'Abu al-Nasir al-Mawsili, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

UNIQUE NAMES

The name Finnéadan appears to be a unique name for a legendary character. Ó Corr´in and Maguire, Irish Names, says of this name "Finnétan was a lady of the Déisi and ancestress of many nobles of Ossory." When Ó Corráin and Maguire provide only information about a single bearer with no other information, this usually means that the person so described is the only known bearer of the name. We have been unable to find this name in any other source which strengthens the argument that this name is unique. Barring another example of this name, it cannot be registered. [Finnéadan ingen Ruadhan, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

There was some question whether Argyll was a unique surname of the Campbells based on the statement from Black, "Sir Duncan Campbell...created Lord Campbell in 1445, was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll..." However, the full quote makes it clear that Argyll is adopted as a locative, "Sir Duncan Cambell or Cambelle of Lochow,...was the first of the family who took the designation of Argyll in addition to, and sometimes in place of Lochow." There is a well attested pattern of inherited surnames in Scotland that are formed from placenames; although Argyll is not documented as a surname, it is documented as a placename. [Angus Argyll of Clyde, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

WELSH

Submitted as Tegen of Liskeard, the submitter argued that this was a spelling variant of Tegan. We note that Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany, published in 1993, lists the name Tegan. However, in the article, "Concerning the Name Tegan", written in 1998, she notes that "Tegan is found as an error for Tegau, the name of a female character appearing in Arthurian literature," so it is likely that the first citation reflects this error rather than a true documented form. The name Tegan has been registered over 40 times, including two registrations in 2004. Therefore Tegan is SCA-compatible. However, no documentation was submitted showing that Tegen is a reasonable variant of Tegan. Therefore, we have changed this name to Tegan of Liskeard. [Tegan of Liskeard, LoAR 01/2005, Atenveldt-A]

This name mixes Welsh and Gaelic; such combinations are unregisterable. Various investigations have been made about substantial contact between Ireland and Wales in period and, despite my expectations, none has been found to indicate substantial contact between Gaelic speakers and Welsh speakers. Barring such documentation, we cannot in good conscience overturn this precedent. [Saige inghean Ghiolla Phádraig, LoAR 01/2005, Atlantia-R]

No documentation was submitted and none found showing the name Arian in use in Wales in period, or in use as a name in cultures that had significant contact with Wales. The submitter asserted that Arian was a variant of the saint's name Arianell, but the submitted documentation only showed Arian- as a protheme in Welsh names. Documentation was presented for the name Arian as an Alexandrian martyr, but no documentation was found showing that the cult of this martyr was known in Wales or in cultures with significant contact with Wales. We would have changed the name to Arianell to match the documentation, but this significantly changes the sound and appearance of the name. The submitter will not accept major changes. [Arian ferch Dafydd Mawr, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-R]

Submitted as Raynagh Binnech ingen Griffyn, the patronymic phrase combines the Gaelic particle ingen with the English or Welsh patronymic Griffyn in violation of RfS III.1.a, Linguistic Consistency. The introduction to Heather Rose Jones, "Names and Naming Practices in the Red Book of Ormond (Ireland 14th Century," says that the Red Book is a collection of Latin documents written by an English speaker; while the names represent English, Irish, and Welsh names, they are written in Latin or English. Therefore, we have dropped the Gaelic patronymic particle in order to register the name. [Raynagh Griffyn, LoAR 12/2004, Trimaris-A]

This name mixes Welsh and French in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Maura Cethin, LoAR 11/2004, An Tir-A]

Submitted as Rhodri ap Tewdwr Awenydd, several commenters questioned whether Awenydd, which was documented as meaning soothsayer or medium, was a claim to supernatural powers. Such claims are forbidden by RfS VI.2, which says "Society names may not claim divine descent, superhuman abilities or powers that the submitter does not actually possess." The dictionary definition of the word awenydd is simply "poet"; for example, the word is found with that meaning in the title of a book of Welsh poetry, R. S. Thomas, Y Caer Awenydd (R. S. Thomas, the Great Poet). However, a Web search shows a great number of English language sites that believe and use this word in the way defined by the submitter's documentation -- as a soothsayer, magician, or medium. As such, then, the use of Awenydd as a byname is a claim to superhuman abilities and is not registerable. We have dropped the problematic element and registered the name as Rhodri ap Tewdwr. [Rhodri ap Tewdwr, LoAR 10/2004, Lochac-A]

Originally submitted as Cynwrig ap Llywelyn, the name was changed at kingdom to Kynwrig ap Llywelyn to better comply with period Welsh naming practice. Although not noted on the LoI, the submitter had requested authenticity for 13th C Welsh language/culture, but accepted only minor changes. The documentation used for the given name, Tangwystyl ferch [sic] Morgant Glasvyn, "A Simple Guide to Constructing 13th C Welsh Names", shows Cynwrig as the modern (post 14th C) form with Kenuric and Kenneric as the 13th C forms of this name. Simply changing the K to a C does not make this name more consistent with 14th C Welsh naming practices. An examination of the names in the article shows that the modern sound represented by the letters cy is consistently written ke in the 13th C forms. In addition, the same data shows that the sound represented by wr consistently appears as ur or er in the 13th C forms, so changing the initial sound without changing the middle sound merely produces a name that is inconsistent with both 13th C Welsh and any later form of the language. Lewelyn is a 13th C form of the patronymic found in the article mentioned above. Based on this information, Kenurig ap Lewelyn or Kenerig ap Lewelyn would be authentic 13th C forms of this name. Because the 13th C form of the given name looks significantly different, we feel changing to one of these forms would be a major change. Therefore, we have changed the given name back to the originally submitted form, and we have changed the patronymic to use the 13th C form Lewelyn in order to partially comply with his request for authenticity. [Cynwrig ap Lewelyn, LoAR 10/2004, Middle-A]

This name mixes Old English and Welsh; this is one step from period practice. [Aluara verch Morgan ap Rhys, LoAR 09/2004, Caid-A]

Therefore, we will give the submitter the benefit of the doubt and allow Cornish/Scots mixtures. Such mixtures are, however, one step from period practice. [Wencenedl of Rokesburg, LoAR 09/2004, Ealdormere-A]

Submitted as Teleri Cadarn, no documentation was submitted and none found to suggest that the name Teleri was used by humans in period. Gruffudd, Welsh Names for Children, derives the modern use of this name from the name of a river. While the name Teleri does appear in the Arthurian tale "Culhwch ac Olwen," an examination of this story shows that the name occurs once in passing when a character swears by a long list of names and events. Current precedent is to accept the names of significant characters from period Arthurian literature. However, Teleri is just a name mentioned in the course of the tale; it is not even the name of a character. Barring documentation that the name was used by humans in period, or that it is the name of a significant period literary character, it cannot be registered. The similar sounding name Eleri is found in Heather Rose Jones, A Welsh Miscellany in the names list taken from Bartrum's Early Welsh Genealogical Tracts and dated examples from Gruffudd. We have changed the name to Eleri Cadarn in order to register it. [Eleri Cadarn, LoAR 09/2004, Meridies-A]

The name combines a Welsh name with an Anglicized Gaelic byname, which is one step from period practice. [Tegwaret MacAuley, LoAR 08/2004, Ansteorra-A]

Tir-y-Cwningen is a post-period form of this name. The submitted documentation shows several examples of Tir-y- names, but the earliest of them dates to 1666. The documentation dates the form Tireconynger to 1472. To change the locative to this form would be a major change which the submitter will not accept. Therefore, the name must be returned. [Dobin Tir-y-Cwningen, LoAR 07/2004, Atenveldt-R]

Listed on the LoI as Maredudd Cethin, the forms show Meradudd Cethin. No documentation was submitted and none found that the spelling Meradudd is a reasonable variant of this name. It is not found in any of the standard sources, and a web search shows it used only in reference to and by this submitter. Heather Rose Jones in A Welsh Miscellany lists the spelling from the LoI. We have, therefore, registered this name as listed on the LoI. [Maredudd Cethin, LoAR 07/2004, Meridies-A]

Submitted as Gwenllian Pengrych ferch Rhys, Welsh grammar requires that the descriptive bynames that start with the letter p must be lenited when used with a feminine given name. We have, therefore, lenited the byname, which changes the spelling to Gwenllian Bengrych ferch Rhys. [Gwenllian Bengrych ferch Rhys, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name combines a Welsh given name with a Scots surname, which is one step from period practice. [Wynne MacNair, LoAR 06/2004, Atenveldt-A]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Welsh and Anglicized Gaelic combinations are registerable although a step from period practice...[Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

[Talon MacDoogaine] Metron Ariston suggested that Talon could be considered an English given name: "Reaney and Wilson (Dictionary of English Surnames, s.n. Tallon) show Henry Talon from 1160 and suggest that it is a patronymic derived from French Talon, a form of Old German Talo." However, the deriviation is a bit more specific. What Reaney and Wilson say is "Probably, as suggested by Dauzat for the French Talon a cas-régime of OG Talo." Dauzat says "représente généralement le nom simple talo, au cas régime" --"Usually representsthe simple name Talo, in the objective case." As we only register given names in the nominative case (they way they would be recorded in a signature or list), and Talon represents the objective case in both French and English, these citations do not support Talon as an English or French given name. Therefore, Talon is only documented as a given name in Welsh. [Talon the Bastard, LoAR 06/2004, Atlantia-A]

This name combines Welsh and Irish Gaelic in a single name; this is one step from period practice. [Siôn MacDougall, LoAR 06/2004, Trimaris-A]