Old Norse Pronunciation Guide

by Aryanhwy merch Catmael (Sara L. Friedemann)

© 2003 Sara L. Friedemann; all rights reserved

Some general guides
~ follows a palatalized consonant. This is sometimes also shown by \y\ or \(y)\.
~ follows a nasalized vowel.
( ) indicates a lightly pronounced consonant. This is sometimes also shown by a lower case letter imbedded in a stressed syllable (see (y) below).
Pronunciation Symbols
\ay\ the sound of <a> in <take>, <ai> in <aid>, and <ay> in <way>.
\ah\ the sound of <ah> in <bah>, <a> in <father>, and <o> in <lock>.
\dh\ voiced \th\, the sound of <th> in <this>, <thy> and <bathe>, but not in <thistle>, <thigh>, and <bath>.
\ee\ the sound of <ee> in <feed> and <ea> in <team>.
\eh\ the sound of <e> in <neck> and <vend>.
\oh\ [O], the sound of <o> in <more>.
\oa\, \o\ [o:], the sound of <oa> in <boat>.
\oo\ represents either:
  • the sound of <oo> in <cool> and <moon>; or

  • the sound of <oo> in <book> and <good>.
\ow\ the sound of <ow> in <how> and <ou> in <loud>, not <ow> in <low>.
\(r)\ an unvoiced trilled <r>, used in Old Norse as a nominative case suffix. For example, <Grimmr> is represented as \GREEM(r)\. This sound is not found in English.
\th\ voiceless \th\, the sound of <th> in <thistle>, <thigh>, and <bath>, but not in <this>, <thy> and <bathe>.
\(y)\ a very slight consonantal \y\ sound combined with the consonant directly preceding it into a single sound. This sound is not found in English. (The same sound is sometimes presented by using a lower case <y> embedded in an all-caps (stressed) syllable, for example, \KyENN\.)
\@\ the sound of <a> in <about> and <soda>. (This sound is called schwa.)